##### 1) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Which boson mediates weak interaction and decays into a lepton and a neutrino?

**ANSWER:**W BOSON

##### 1) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Beta Plus decay results in the emission of what two particles?

**ANSWER:**POSITRON AND ELECTRON NEUTRIN

##### 2) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What famous psychologist’s theory of personality introduced the concepts of race memory and the collective unconscious?

**ANSWER:**CARL JUNG (ACCEPT: JUNG) (pronounced: Young)

##### 2) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

What optical instrument is an essential tool used for a number of purposes in surveying, navigation, and meteorology:

W) wallastone prism

X) theodolite

Y) immerect

Z) two way parralax meter

**ANSWER:**X) THEODOLITE

##### 3) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of these atmospheric layers is furthest from the Earth’s surface?

W) Stratosphere

X) Mesosphere

Y) Thermosphere

Z) Troposphere

**ANSWER:**Y) THERMOSPHERE

##### 3) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the name of the atmospheric layer that is the closest to the ground?

**ANSWER:**TROPOSPHERE

##### 4) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the sum of the smallest prime number and the smallest composite number?

**ANSWER:**6

##### 4) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

A right triangle has sides with lengths of 8, 15, and 17 meters. As a fraction in lowest terms and in meters, what is the length of the altitude to the hypotenuse?

**ANSWER:**120/17

##### 5) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

In 1931, who disproved that axioms of arithmetic were consistent and could sufficiently prove or disprove any mathematical conjecture?

**ANSWER:**Kurt Gödel (Accept: Gödel)

##### 5) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Evaluate the expression, `x(y + z)^2`, when x = 2, y = -8; and z = 3:

**ANSWER:**50

##### 6) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the area of the region bounded by the curve: `y = sinx` [y equals sine of x] and the x-axis from `x = 0` to `x = pi`?

**ANSWER:**2

##### 6) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the largest possible real domain for the function `f(x) = (4x^2)/sqrt(4 - x^2)` [f of x equals the fraction with numerator 4 x squared and denominator the square root of the quantity 4 minus x squared]?

**ANSWER:**(-2, 2) (ACCEPT: -2 < x < 2)

##### 7) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What is the name of the largest body in the asteroid belt?

W) Gaspara

X) Eris

Y) Ceres

Z) Biela

**ANSWER:**Y) Ceres

##### 7) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Which dwarf planet is currently the largest celestial body that has been discovered in the Kuiper Belt?

**ANSWER:**Eris

##### 8) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

Gout is due to the build-up of what substance in the blood?

**ANSWER:**URIC ACID

##### 8) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Compared with the walls of arteries, the walls of veins

W) are thicker.

X) are more elastic.

Y) lack valves.

Z) have more resistance.

**ANSWER:**X-- ARE MORE ELASTIC

##### 9) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

How many bits of color information per pixel does Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) file support?

W) 8

X) 16

Y) 24

Z) 32

**ANSWER:**Y) 24

##### 9) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

What is the term used to describe a
strategy employed in distributed processing and other multi-user situations to prevent more than one user at a time from writing data to a record?

W) record blocking

X) recoverable blocking

Y) record locking

Z) record structure

**ANSWER:**Y) RECORD LOCKING

##### 10) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What type of cancer is the HeLa cell derived from?

**ANSWER:**cervical cancer

##### 10) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is an immortalized cell line?

W) Epithelial

X) T Cell

Y) Vero

Z) A589

**ANSWER:**Y) Vero

##### 11) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If the area of a right triangle ABC is 6 and leg BC is one-third the length of leg AB, what is the length of AB?

**ANSWER:**6

##### 11) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

A merchant wants to mix 2 types of sugar that sell for $0.40 per gram and $0.60 per gram, respectively. If he wants a mixture of 5 grams that sells for $0.58 per gram, how many grams of each should he mix?

**ANSWER:**0.5 Grams Of $0.40 Plus 4.5 Grams Of $0.60

##### 12) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Water flows at 2.0 meters per second through a tube of radius 1 centimeter. The dynamic viscosity of the water is 1.0 x 10'3 pascal seconds. Which of the following best represents the Reynolds number and the nature of the flow, given that the density of water is 1.0 x 103 kilograms per cubic meter?

W) 40,000; turbulent

X) 40,000; laminar

Y) 20,000; turbulent z) 20,000; laminar

**ANSWER:**W) 40,000; TURBULENT

##### 12) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A 1000-watt oven is connected to a 240-volt AC power source. Which of the following is nearest the peak voltage across the oven?

W) 120

X) 270

Y) 340 z) 370

**ANSWER:**Y) 340

##### 13) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

DNA is produced from RNA:

W) by reverse transcriptase

X) by an oligoside

Y) by DNA polymerase

Z) in yeast as a protective measure

**ANSWER:**W) BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE

##### 13) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following does NOT belong to the Class Arachnida:

W) spider

X) tick

Y) mite

Z) shrimp

**ANSWER:**Z) SHRIMP

##### 14) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

The process in which fat globules in milk are broken up into smaller, more evenly dispersed particles is BEST described as:

W) lactation

X) pasteurization

Y) fermentation

Z) homogenization

**ANSWER:**Z) HOMOGENIZATION

##### 14) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is LEAST accurate regarding non-fuel petroleum products:

W) petroleum jelly is often used to make household toiletries

X) asphalt is often used in making roof shingles

Y) petrochemicals are used to make latex

Z) printing inks and paint solvents are often petroleum-based

**ANSWER:**Y) PETROCHEMICALS ARE USED TO MAKE LATEX

##### 15) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Giving your answer in standard form, give the equation of a circle with center at (12, 7) and a radius of 4:

**ANSWER:**`(x - 12)^2 + (y - 7)^2 = 16`

##### 15) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Giving your answer in standard form, what is the fourth term in the binomial expansion of the following: `(4x + y)^4`

**ANSWER:**`16xy^3` (accept: `16y^3x`)

##### 16) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

After a 20% increase, the new price of a tennis racket is $180.00. What was the original price of the racket?

**ANSWER:**150

##### 16) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the 13th term in the following arithmetic progression: 2, 7, 12…

**ANSWER:**62

##### 17) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of the class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites:

W) they make up less than 10% of all meteorites

X) they contain as much as 20% of water

Y) they are rich in organic compounds

Z) they show substantial evidence of being subjected to high-temperature metamorphic processes

**ANSWER:**Z) THEY SHOW SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE OF BEING SUBJECTED TO HIGH-TEMPERATURE METAMORPHIC PROCESSES

##### 17) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Bode’s Law, which was believed to correctly describe the distance of the planets from the Sun, breaks down in its ability to correctly predict planetary positions after what planet?

**ANSWER:**URANUS

##### 18) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

The disease that results when the autoimmune system destroys the myelin sheath of nerve fibers is

W) multiple sclerosis

X) rheumatoid arthritis

Y) rheumatic fever

Z) juvenile-onset diabetes

**ANSWER:**W) multiple sclerosis

##### 18) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

In a plasma membrane, which of the following provides a general barrier to the movement of molecules?

W) lipids

X) proteins

Y) carbohydrates

Z) all of these

**ANSWER:**W) lipids

##### 19) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the only element which is "mined" from the sea? Is it:

W) copper

X) magnesium

Y) uranium

Z) zinc

**ANSWER:**X) magnesium

##### 19) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Most terrestrial plants grow best in soil with a pH range of:

W) 4.5 to 5.5

X) 6.0 to 7.0

Y) 7.0 to 8.0

Z) 7.5 to 8.5

**ANSWER:**X) 6.0 to 7.0

##### 20) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following features forms because parts of a glacier move at varying speeds and in different directions?

W) Moraines

X) Moulan

Y) Crevasses

Z) Aretes [uh-REYTS]

**ANSWER:**Y) CREVASSES

##### 20) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Order the following four steps that are theorized to have occurred in the formation of our atmosphere: 1) plants evolve and oxygen increases dramatically; 2) the atmosphere gradually becomes rich in nitrogen; 3) outgassing leads to abundant water vapor; 4) photodissociation increases oxygen gradually.

**ANSWER:**3, 2, 4, 1

##### 21) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which one of the following is not a trait of minerals?

W) have a crystal structure

X) made from living organisms

Y) solids

Z) have a definite chemical makeup

**ANSWER:**X) MADE FROM LIVING ORGANISMS

##### 21) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

What is the term for the process of matching rocks of the same age at different locations?

**ANSWER:**CORRELATION

##### 22) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

In the last 4 billion years, the average brightness of the Sun has:

W) Increased

X) Decreased

Y) Stayed the same

Z) Increased, then decreased

**ANSWER:**W) INCREASED

##### 22) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What are explosive events associated with sunspots that cause spectacular auroras in Earth’s upper atmosphere near its magnetic poles?

**ANSWER:**SOLAR FLARES

##### 23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A commutator is used in a motor designed to be run on a

W) AC power source

X) DC power source

Y) stepper motor control system

Z) servo power system

**ANSWER:**X) DC POWER SOURCE

##### 23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Servo motors receive input of PWM signals, used to determine motor axle position. What does PWM stand for?

**ANSWER:**PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

##### 24) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

In scientific notation, one attojoule is equal to how many joules?

**ANSWER:**`1 xx 10^-18`

##### 24) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the IUPAC name of the compound PbCO3?

**ANSWER:**LEAD (II) CARBONATE (DO NOT ACCEPT: PLUMBOUS CARBONATE, LEAD CARBONATE)

##### 25) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the equation for the tangent line for `y = x^4` at the point (1, 1):

W) `y = 4x - 3`

X) `y = 4x - 1`

Y) `y = 4x + 1`

Z) `y = 4x + 3`

**ANSWER:**W) `y = 4x - 3`

##### 25) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Solve the following equation for x over the set of complex numbers, giving your answer in simplest form: `x^2 - 10x + 34 = 0`

**ANSWER:**`5 + 3i` and `5 - 3i`