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1) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What is the name of the hybrid super computer in Yokohama, Japan, specifically designed for atmospheric modeling calculations?

ANSWER: THE EARTH SIMULATOR
1) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following BEST describes the field of study called spintronics:
W) studying the angular momentum of celestial bodies
X) using high strength centripetal forces to separate materials in solution
Y) nanoscale electronics that involve manipulation and observation of electron spin
Z) quantum manipulation of quark and gluon spin states

ANSWER: Y) NANOSCALE ELECTRONICS THAT INVOLVE MANIPULATION AND OBSERVATION OF ELECTRON SPIN
2) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In which of the following compounds does nitrogen have an unpaired electron?
W) Ammonia
X) Nitrous oxide
Y) Sodium nitrate
Z) Nitric oxide

ANSWER: Z) NITRIC OXIDE
2) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

A saturated solution of calcium hydroxide is titrated with aqueous hydrochloric acid. Using proper chemical nomenclature and indicating the state of each substance, such as solid, liquid, aqueous, or gas, what is the balanced molecular equation for this reaction?

ANSWER: Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) -> CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(i) [NOTE: AQ = AQUEOUS; L = LIQUID]
3) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Microlensing is BEST explained by which of the following theories or laws:
W) Quantum theory
X) General Relativity
Y) Kirchhoff’s laws
Z) Maxwell’s law

ANSWER: X) GENERAL RELATIVITY
3) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a type of telescope technology that uses mirrors whose shapes can be deformed:
W) Schmidt optics
X) redundant interfermetric optics
Y) CCD optics

4) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following cases would be most directly solved by applying Wien’s law:
W) half-life of an isotope given its nucleon make up
X) angle of refraction
Y) charge of an electron
Z) color of a star given its temperature

ANSWER: Z) COLOR OF A STAR GIVEN ITS TEMPERATURE
4) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

In one second, how many electrons will move past a point in a wire carrying a direct current of two amps?
W) 2.5 xx 10^18
X) 1.25 xx 10^16
Y) 1.25 xx 10^19
Z) 2.5 xx 10^19

ANSWER: Y) 1.25 xx 10^19
5) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

Biologists usually refer to the head of a tapeworm by what name?

5) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

What is the most appropriate term for the genetic character of an organism having a pair of identical alleles for a certain trait:
W) dominant
X) recessive
Y) homozygous
Z) heterozygous

6) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

On which one of the following is the largest known volcanic cone in the solar system located?
W) Earth
X) Io
Y) Mars
Z) the moon

6) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

Mount St. Helens is one of the more active volcanos in the UnitedStates today. In what state is Mount St. Helens located?

7) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following metals react violently with water to produce hydrogen gas:
W) sodium
X) zinc
Y) platinum
Z) silver

7) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What colorless liquid was originally produced from the distillation of wood and is often referred to as wood alcohol:

ANSWER: METHANOL (ACCEPT: METHYL ALCOHOL OR CH?OH)
8) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Refraction occurs because waves
W) are absorbed.
X) move at different speeds in different media.
Y) strike a barrier and bounce back.
Z) bend around the edges of barriers.

ANSWER: X-- MOVE AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS IN DIFFERENT MEDIA
8) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Sonar refers to
W) all waves of high frequency.
X) all ultrasonic waves.
Y) the science of sound.
Z) sound navigation and ranging.

9) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the metric unit for mass?

9) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the SI unit of force?

10) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

How many neutrons and how many protons are present in a single tritium nucleus?

ANSWER: TWO NEUTRONS AND ONE PROTON
10) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the average acceleration in meters/sec2 of a seagull traveling in a straight path from rest to 36 km/hr in 10 sec?

ANSWER: 1 (Solution: 36 km/hr x 1000 m x 1/3600 s = 10 m/s , 10 m/s 10 = 1 m/s2)
11) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following sea turtle species is phylogenetically distinct from the others and can maintain body temperature elevated above ambient levels?
Y) Kemp’s Ridley
X) Leatherback
Y) Green z) Loggerhead

11) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following scenarios most closely resembles Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium [ee-kwuh-LIB-ree-uhm]?
W) Lizards on a large, isolated island with scarce, scattered food resources
X) Lizards on a large, isolated island with plentiful food resources
Y) Birds on a small island that have highly selective mating behavior z) Birds on a small island that fly frequently back and forth to the mainland

ANSWER: X) LIZARDS ON A LARGE, ISOLATED ISLAND WITH PLENTIFUL FOOD RESOURCES
12) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Plank’s constant, denoted by the lowercase letter h, is a very very very small number. The related reduced Plank’s constant is denoted by
W) lowercase r
X) lowercase h sub lowercase r
Y) lowercase h with a bar through the top
Z) lowercase h with two dots above it

ANSWER: Y) LOWERCASE H WITH A BAR THROUGH THE TOP
12) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the ratio of Plank’s constant to the reduced Plank’s constant?

13) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Which of the following statements concerning prime numbers are true? 1. If a and n are relatively prime than there are infinitely many primes that leave a remainder of a when divided by n. 2. All integers less than p are quadratic residues modulo p 3. There are infinitely many prime numbers

ANSWER: 1 and 3
13) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

If a1+a2+a3+a4+a5=17 for positive integers a1,a2,a3,a4,a5, then maximize the product a1a2a3a4a5?

14) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The hybridization of one ‘s’ (read as: one s) orbital and 3 ‘p’ (read as: three p) orbitals and one 'd' (read as: one d) orbital creates how many sp3d hybrid orbitals?

14) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

A solution contains 0.50 moles of methanol in 100 grams of water. What is the mole fraction of methanol, to the second decimal place?

ANSWER: 0.08 (DO NOT ACCEPT 8.0%) (Solution: 100g/18 g mol-1 = 5.56 moles; 0.5 mol/(5.56 + 0.5) = 0.0825)
15) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

P(x) is a function from the positive integers to the positive reals such that P(x+y) is equal to the product of P(x) and P(y) for all pairs of positive integers (x,y). If P(3) = 5, evaluate P(12).

15) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Let F(n) (Read: F of n) denote the nth Fibonacci number. As n goes to infinity, F(n+1)/F(n) approaches a constant. As a decimal to the nearest thousandth, what is this constant?

16) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A ball is dropped from rest at a height of 60 meters above the ground. If the potential energy is zero at the ground, then at what height in meters is the potential energy 60% of its initial potential energy?

16) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the minimum current in amperes a circuit breaker fuse must be able to handle in order to run a 1450 watt refrigerator hooked up to a 110 volt kitchen circuit, assuming fuses are only available in whole number increments?

17) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true about the index of refraction:
W) it has no units
X) the refractive index for air is lower than glass
Y) optical devices take advantage of it to improve resolution
Z) the refractive index for oil is lower than air

ANSWER: Z) THE REFRACTIVE INDEX FOR OIL IS LOWER THAN AIR
17) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

To the nearest whole number and in kilometers per hour, what is the speed of a frog swimming at a constant 10 kilometers per hour directly across a river that has a downstream current of 4 kilometers per hour?

ANSWER: 11 (Solution: speed = Vl02 + 42 = Vl16 = 10.8 km/hr)
18) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of diatoms?
W) They have a saccharide cell covering
Y) They have a frustule [FRUHS-chool] made up of silica x) They contain carotenoids [kuh-ROT-n-oids], as well as chlorophyll a and b
Z) Some species produce toxins

ANSWER: W) THEY HAVE A SACCHARIDE CELL COVERING
18) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What term, derived from the Greek words for feces and rock, applies to fossilized animal dung?

19) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is produced by gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere?
W) Primary particulate matter
X) Secondary particulate matter
Y) Tertiary aerosols
Z) Primary aerosols

ANSWER: X) SECONDARY PARTICULATE MATTER
19) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What are the two most abundant minerals in the continental crust?

ANSWER: QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR (ACCEPT: FELDSPAR FAMILY)
20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Which form of coal has the highest percentage of carbon?

20) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a salt?
W) Water
X) Soap
Y) Plastic
Z) Rust

21) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

At one atmosphere, 11 calories of heat are quickly added to 1 gram of water that begins at 90 degrees Celsius. What is its final temperature?

ANSWER: 100 DEGREES CELSIUS
21) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

What type of image is formed when an object is placed behind the focus of a concave mirror?
W) real and inverted
X) real and erect
Y) virtual and inverted
Z) virtual and erect

ANSWER: W) REAL AND INVERTED
22) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

In early experiments in the mid-1900’s, the source and fate of oxygen involved in photosynthesis was mostly determined through experiments that used:
W) animals in closed containers that would die unless a plant was introduced into the container
X) a heavy isotope of oxygen as a tracer
Y) fluorescent labeling of various enzymes and organic products
Z) simple accounting of the atomic mass of all the reactants and products

ANSWER: X) A HEAVY ISOTOPE OF OXYGEN AS A TRACER
22) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

By number or name, identify all of the following 4 processes that contribute directly to genetic variation in humans: 1) random fertilization of ova with sperm; 2) crossing over; 3) independent assortment; 4) mitosis

ANSWER: 1, 2 AND 3 (ACCEPT: ALL BUT #4)
23) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the efficiency of an ideal Carnot engine operating between temperature reservoirs of 27° Celsius and 227° Celsius?

23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A parachutist lands on the ground at a speed of 6 meters per second. Providing your answer to the nearest tenth and given acceleration due to gravity as 10 meters per second squared, what is the height in meters from which a free-falling object would have to fall to reach the same speed?

24) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A jet traveling at 800 kilometers per hour has how many more times the kinetic energy than the same jet traveling at -> that speed?

24) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What color would be produced when mixing magenta and cyan pigments?