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1) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The elements of the 4f series are called

ANSWER: LANTHANIDES
1) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

All of the following are colligative properties except
W) chemical solubility.
X) freezing point depression.
Y) boiling point elevation.
Z) vapor pressure reduction.

ANSWER: W-- CHEMICAL SOLUBILITY
2) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Landform deposits called linear dunes that were recently found on the moon Titan are MOST directly produced by:
W) tectonic activity
X) wind
Y) erosion by the retreat and advance of large seas of liquid methane
Z) streaks in the surface following low-angle meteorite impacts

ANSWER: X) WIND
2) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the magnifying power of the telescope with a focal length of 5 meters and an eyepiece of 20 millimeters?

ANSWER: 250 (ACCEPT: 250X or 250 TIMES) (Solution: 5000mm/20mm = 250)
3) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If both x and y are functions of time, what is the derivative of the PRODUCT of x and y with respect to time equal to?

ANSWER: x[dy/dt] + y[dx/dt] or y[dx/dt] + x[dy/dt]
3) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

log(64)=
W) 6 log(2) (6 times log 2)
X) log(6) + log(4)
Y) log(60) + log(4)
Z) 6.4 log(10)

ANSWER: W) 6 log(2) (6 times log 2)
4) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following sets of particles can be the result of a muon's decay?
W) quark, anti-quark, and electron
X) quark, anti-quark, and muon antineutrino
Y) tau, tau antineutrino, muon neutrino
Z) electron, electron antineutrino, muon neutrino

ANSWER: Z) ELECTRON, ELECTRON ANTINEUTRINO, MUON NEUTRINO
4) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle can be restated so that rather than referring to position and momentum, it refers instead to time and what other quantity?

ANSWER: ENERGY
5) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

If you wanted to radioactively label protein and DNA to tell which one was present in a certain place, what 2 isotopes would you most likely use for the protein and theDNA, respectively?

ANSWER: Protein = s-35; dna = p-32 (accept: sulfur-35 and phosphorus-32)
5) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of the human body:
W) there are substantial numbers of lymph nodes in the wall of the large intestine
X) veins have comparatively thick walls with more muscle than arteries
Y) there are two layers of smooth muscle in the walls of the small intestine
Z) the small intestine is longer than the large intestine

ANSWER: X) veins have comparatively thick walls with more muscle than arteries
6) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

This circuit law, in essence, restates the conservation of charge:
W) Ohm's Law
X) Joule's Law
Y) Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Z) Kirchhoff's Current Law

ANSWER: Z) KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW
6) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

In circuits, current is usually shown to travel in the opposite direction of electron flow. What is the term for this type of flow?

ANSWER: CONVENTIONAL CURRENT FLOW
7) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

A comet develops a tail because of
W) the solar wind
X) Earth’s atmosphere
Y) the Oort Cloud
Z) heat from Mercury

ANSWER: W) the solar wind
7) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The determination of stellar parallax is important because itows the determination of:
W) mass
X) diameter
Y) distance
Z) velocity

ANSWER: Y) distance
8) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the programming language used to create Web pages?

ANSWER: HTML
8) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Use DeMorgan’s Law to restate not(p and q) (read: not parentheses p and q parentheses closed).
W) (not p) or (not q)
X) (p) or (q)
Y) (p) and (q)
Z) (not p) and (not q)

ANSWER: W-- (NOT P) OR (NOT Q)
9) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

This is the name of the closest object location at which a lens will form a sharp image:

ANSWER: NEAR POINT
9) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true?
W) a human's near point moves further from the lens with age
X) a human's near point usually becomes 500 cm or greater around age 60
Y) a human's near point averages around 25 cm
Z) a human's near point around the age of 10 is typically 30 cm

ANSWER: Z) A HUMAN'S NEAR POINT AROUND THE AGE OF 10 IS TYPICALLY 30 CM
10) Toss Up - Energy - Short Answer

By name or number, order the following three countries in increasing order of oil imports in 2014: China, Canada, Japan.

ANSWER: 2, 3, 1 (ACCEPT: CANADA, JAPAN, CHINA)
10) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not an adverse effect of light pollution?
W) It interferes with the circadian rhythm of nocturnal species
X) It disrupts the migration patterns of birds
Y) It worsens smog by breaking down the nitrate radical NO3
Z) It causes sea turtle hatchlings to wander inland, attempting to follow the reflection of the moon on the sea

ANSWER: X) IT DISRUPTS THE MIGRATION PATTERNS OF BIRDS
11) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

An emission or bright line spectrum consists of:
W) a series of bright lines superimposed on a black or continuous background.
X) a series of bright and dark lines superimposed on a black-lined grid
Y) a series of faint black lines superimposed on a bright background
Z) a circular array of dark ring patterns on a bright background

ANSWER: W) A SERIES OF BRIGHT LINES SUPERIMPOSED ON A BLACK OR CONTINUOUS BACKGROUND.
11) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the name for the celestial body of interstellar gas and dust where stars are sometimes born?

ANSWER: NEBULA
12) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

In studies of trees, one finds just one leaf bud and one leaf at each node on a walnut twig. This arrangement of leaf bud and leaf is known as:
W) alternate
X) opposite
Y) whorled
Z) none of the above

ANSWER: W) alternate
12) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The complex of sugar polymers and proteins which are patchily distributed on the plasma membranes of animal cells is called
W) cellulose
X) chitin
Y) glyocalyx
Z) cytoskeleton

ANSWER: Y) glyocalyx
13) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

A slow-moving warm front is followed by a fast-moving cold front which overtakes the warm front and lifts the warm air entirely aloft, forming what kind of front:
W) stationary
X) occluded
Y) wave
Z) pressure

ANSWER: X) OCCLUDED
13) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

The relative amount of oxygen at the Summit of Mount Everest versus sea level is:
W) the same
X) less than
Y) greater than
Z) dependent on the temperature

ANSWER: W) THE SAME (Solution: 20.9% by volume in each case)
14) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Electricity is called a secondary energy source because
W) it's our no 2 source of energy
X) it's not as important as oil and gas
Y) we get it from converting other energy sources
Z) all of the above

ANSWER: Y) we get it from converting other energy sources
14) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

In a typical power plant used to generate electricity in the U.S., the percentage of energy in the fuel that is converted to electricity is about:
W) 99 percent
X) 50 percent
Y) 35 percent
Z) 10 percent

ANSWER: Y) 35 percent
15) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Name the world’s first successful meteorological satellite, launched from Cape Canaveral on April 1, 1960, which demonstrated the advantage of mapping the Earth’s cloud cover from satellite altitudes?

ANSWER: TIROS (ACCEPT: TELEVISION INFRARED OBSERVATION SATELLITE)
15) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

By name or number, identify where fine-grained terrigenous deposits are most likely to form: 1) abyssal plains, 2) atolls, 3) deep-sea fans, 4) continental margins, or 5) elevated oceanic ridges.

ANSWER: ABYSSAL PLAINS (ACCEPT: 1)
16) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

In an autologous tissue transplant, from whom does the person receive the tissue?

ANSWER: THEMSELVES
16) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The margin of an ash tree leaf would most generally be called:
W) divided
X) entire
Y) serrate
Z) lacerate

ANSWER: Y) SERRATE
17) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an even function?
W) `cosx`
X) `cos(x^2)`
Y) `sinx`
Z) `sin(x^2)`

ANSWER: Y) `sinx`
17) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Given that x and y are real numbers, solve for x and y: `2y + ix = 4 + x - i`.

ANSWER: x = -1; y = 3/2
18) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

If an astronomer photographed a massive cloud of ionized hydrogen in space that was emitting all of the Balmer wavelengths, what color would it typically appear to us:
W) white
X) green
Y) pink
Z) blue

ANSWER: Y) pink
18) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

With reference to the Sun’s position in the sky, when does a full Moon set?

ANSWER: When the sun rises
19) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

A haploid nucleus contains how many sets of chromosomes!?

ANSWER: ONE
19) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Select the incorrect association.
W) ectoderm/eyes
X) ectoderm/nervous system
Y) endoderm/bone
Z) mesoderm/cartilage

ANSWER: Y) ENDODERM/BONE
20) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The total mechanical energy of a body in circular orbit is -100 kilojoules. How much kinetic energy does the body have?
W) 50 kilojoules
X) 100 kilojoules
Y) 200 kilojoules
Z) 400 kilojoules

ANSWER: X) 100 KILOJOULES
20) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Which of Kepler’s laws relates the square of the period of orbit with the cube of the semimajor axis?

ANSWER: KEPLER’S THIRD LAW
21) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

If G is Newton’s gravitation constant, M is the mass of the star, and c is the speed of light, what is the Schwarzschild radius of the star?
W) GM/c
X) GM/c^2
Y) 2GM/c
Z) 2GM/c^2

ANSWER: Z) 2GM/C^2
21) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

With what three quantities can you completely describe a black hole?

ANSWER: MASS, ANGULAR MOMEMTUM, CHARGE
22) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an example of a native element?
W) Platinum
X) Ruby
Y) Gold
Z) Diamond

ANSWER: X) RUBY
22) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What celestial phenomenon results from the movement of charged particles interacting with the Earth’s magnetosphere?

ANSWER: AURORA BOREALIS (ACCEPT: AURORA AUSTRALIS, NORTHERN LIGHTS, SOUTHERN LIGHTS, AURORA)
23) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following clockwise currents brings warm Caribbean waters into the Gulf of Mexico before joining the Gulf Stream?
W) Caribbean system
X) Loop
Y) North Equatorial Z) Florida

ANSWER: X) LOOP
23) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following does NOT describe the asthenosphere?
W) Region of the lower mantle
X) Viscous [VIS-kuhs]
Y) Mechanically weak and ductile
Z) Involved in plate tectonic movements

ANSWER: W) REGION OF THE LOWER MANTLE
24) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

A wave base is defined as the depth below an ocean wave in deep water below which stirring due to wind is negligible, and is approximately equal to:
W) 1/8 of its wavelength
X) 1/4 of its wavelength
Y) 1/2 of its wavelength
Z) 3/4 of its wavelength

ANSWER: Y) 1/2 OF ITS WAVELENGTH
24) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

A clastic particle falling within the size range of 1/16 mm to 2 mm is called:
W) silt
X) sand
Y) clay
Z) pebble

ANSWER: X) SAND
25) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

The cluster of cells that forms in the blastocyst produces three cell layers during
W) gastrulation.
X) implantation.
Y) cleavage.
Z) double fertilization.

ANSWER: W) gastrulation.
25) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is also called "cancer of the blood" -- an uncontrolled, greatly accelerated production of white cells. Is it:
W) polycythemia
X) leukemia
Y) sickle-cell anemia
Z) none of these

ANSWER: X) leukemia