##### 1) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If n is greater than 2, then the equation `x^n + y^n = z^n` has no positive integer solutions x, y, z. This result is known as

**ANSWER:**FERMAT'S (PRONOUNCE: FAIR-MAH'S) LAST THEOREM

##### 1) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

The critical points of `f(x) = sqrt(x^2 + 1)` are: (read as: f of x equals the square root of the quantity x squared plus 1)

W) 1 and - 1

X) 1 and 0

Y) 0

Z) the function has no critical points

**ANSWER:**Y) 0

##### 2) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a rational number:
w) `1+sqrt(4)`

X) `2+sqrt(5)`

Y) 'sqrt(6)`

Z) '\pi`

**ANSWER:**W) `1+sqrt(4)`

##### 2) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

If the average of 5 numbers is 16, what is the sum of the 5 numbers?

**ANSWER:**80

##### 3) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Recent measurements by the Hipparcos satellite place the
Andromeda galaxy further than previously believed. The new estimate for the distance
from the Sun to the Andromeda galaxy is approximately

W) 880,000 parsecs.

X) 335,000 light years.

Y) 1.94 million light years.

Z) 2.93 million light years.

**ANSWER:**Z-- 2.93 MILLION LIGHT YEARS

##### 3) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The distance from the Sun to the center of our Milky Way galaxy
is about

W) 1.3 million Astronomical Units.

X) 1,200 parsecs.

Y) 8,600 parsecs.

Z) 105,000 light years.

**ANSWER:**Y-- 8,600 PARSECS

##### 4) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What technique uses Laplace’s equation and fake mirror charges to determine the electric potential of a charge distribution?

**ANSWER:**METHOD OF IMAGES

##### 4) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Whenever the speed of a wave depends on its frequency, the supporting medium is called what?

**ANSWER:**DISPERSIVE

##### 5) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a constant volumetric
rate. At a location where the cross sectional area decreases, the velocity of the fluid

W) increases.

X) decreases.

Y) stays the same.

Z) stops.

**ANSWER:**W-- INCREASES

##### 5) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the maximum possible speed of impact, in meters per
second, upon the surface of the earth for a faraway object initially at rest that falls to
earth by virtue of only the earth’s gravity?

W) 1.1

X) 5.5

Y) 11.2

Z) 18.7

**ANSWER:**Y-- 11.2

##### 6) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A lead chromate solution is typically what color:

W) blue

X) red

Y) yellow

Z) green

**ANSWER:**Y) YELLOW

##### 6) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following molecules exhibits a dipole moment:

W) CH4

X) H2S

Y) CO2

Z) SO3

**ANSWER:**X) H2S

##### 7) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Ants belong to which insect order?

W) Blattodea

X) Isoptera

Y) Diptera

Z) Hymenoptera

**ANSWER:**Z) HYMENOPTERA

##### 7) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

What class of antibody can pass through the placenta?

W) IgA

X) IgE

Y) IgG

Z) IgM

**ANSWER:**Y) IgG

##### 8) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is LEAST accurate about the composition and structure of Earth’s atmosphere:

W) at the uppermost boundary of the troposphere, air temperature begins to increase with increasing altitude

X) the ozone layer absorbs UV radiation from the Sun

Y) there are about one-third as many gas molecules in the air atop Mt. Everest compared to sea level

Z) it is divided into four distinct layers based primarily on pressure gradients

**ANSWER:**Z) it is divided into four distinct layers based primarily on pressure gradients

##### 8) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is TRUE:

W) deserts often occur on the windward sides of mountains

X) taiga biomes are characterized by long severe winters and short summers

Y) the most fertile soils are typically found in tropical forests

Z) pedocal soil types are most likely be found in wet, humid environments

**ANSWER:**X) taiga biomes are characterized by long severe winters and short summers

##### 9) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the frequency, in megahertz, of a wave of period 2 x 10^-8 seconds?

**ANSWER:**50

##### 9) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Given that the heat of fusion of water is 80 kilocalories per kilogram and providing your answer as a decimal to the nearest hundredth, what is the change in entropy per kilogram, in kilocalories per Kelvin, when ice at 0° Celsius is converted into water at 0° Celsius?

**ANSWER:**0.29

##### 10) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If two sides of a quadrilateral are parallel and the other two sides are equal but NOT parallel, the quadrilateral is known as a

**ANSWER:**TRAPEZOID

##### 10) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

Bill cuts the pie he baked into ten equal pieces. My piece happens
to measure about 6 cm at the wide end. Approximately what is the diameter of the pie?

W) 10 cm

X) 20 cm

Y) 6 cm

Z) 25 cm

**ANSWER:**X-- 20 CM

##### 11) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

When light rays from a common source is passed through two slits whose diameters are much greater than the light ray’s wavelength, what happens to the light rays??

W) They interfere constructively

X) They interfere destructively

Y) They never interfere

Z) The light rays almost interfere

**ANSWER:**Y) THEY NEVER INTERFERE

##### 11) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A water bed has a length and a width of 2.0 meters and a depth of 30.0 cm. What is its weight in newtons

**ANSWER:**12,000 N

##### 12) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

Diabetes Type I (read as: Type one) usually affects which of the following groups of people:

W) old

X) young

Y) middle aged

Z) all age groups equally

**ANSWER:**X) YOUNG 5417

##### 12) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

The process by which ice melts under pressure and almost immediately re-freezes when the pressure is removed, is called:

**ANSWER:**REGELATION

##### 13) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the file extension that identifies sound files stored in waveform audio format?

**ANSWER:**.WAV (READ AS: DOT W A V)

##### 13) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the multi-user, multitasking operating system originally developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Laboratories for use on minicomputers?

**ANSWER:**UNIX

##### 14) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Copyrighted software that is distributed free of
charge by the author for people to use but not sell is called:

W) freeware

X) openware

Y) open source

Z) public-domain

**ANSWER:**W) FREEWARE

##### 14) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

What is the octal equivalent of the binary number 1000 (read as: one, zero, zero, zero)?

W) 1

X) 3

Y) 5

Z) 10

**ANSWER:**Z) 10

##### 15) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

Which Greek letter symbolizes wavelength, decay constant, or thermal conductivity?

**ANSWER:**LAMBDA

##### 15) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What is the term for the line on a map or chart joining points or places of equal temperature?

**ANSWER:**ISOTHERM

##### 16) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What reflecting surface forms a geometrically perfect image
of a point source located at infinity (such as that approximated by a star)?

W) Paraboloid

X) Ellipsoid

Y) Spherical

Z) Hyperboloid

**ANSWER:**W-- PARABOLOID

##### 16) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A block of metal that weighs 60 newtons in air and 40 newtons
under water has a density, in kilograms per meter cubed, of

W) 1000.

X) 3000.

Y) 5000.

Z) 7000.

**ANSWER:**X-- 3000

##### 17) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

You are conducting an experiment. In a large elementary school, you select two age-matched groups of students. Group 1 follows a normal schedule. Group 2 spends 30 minutes a day in art class in addition to their other classes. You want to test whether learning art makes a student less likely to get in trouble. You consider a student in trouble if he or she was sent to the principal’s office at any time during the year. The data you collect would BEST be analyzed by which of the following?

W) Two populations, difference in means, paired data

X) Two populations, difference in means, unpaired data

Y) Two populations, difference in proportions

Z) Two populations, contingency table

**ANSWER:**Y) TWO POPULATIONS, DIFFERENCE IN PROPORTIONS

##### 17) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Water flows at 10 cubic feet per minute into a cylinder with a radius of 5 feet and height of 12 feet. Providing your answer as a fraction in simplest form in terms of `pi`, how fast is the water rising in feet per minute when the height is 4 feet?

**ANSWER:**`2/(5pi)`

##### 18) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the term for the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of one kilogram of a material by one degree Celsius?

**ANSWER:**SPECIFIC HEAT

##### 18) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Indicate by name or number which of the following four phenomena is or are associated with the formation of rainbows: 1) reflection 2) refraction 3) polarization 4) diffraction

**ANSWER:**REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

##### 19) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

A nearby spiral galaxy that contains a very energetic, bright central nucleus is known as a:

W) Seyfert Galaxy

X) Shapley Galaxy

Y) quasar

Z) pulsar

**ANSWER:**W) SEYFERT GALAXY

##### 19) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

At various distances from the Sun, the areas where very few asteroids orbit are called:

**ANSWER:**KIRKWOOD GAPS

##### 20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the pH of a 1 × 10-4 molar HCl solution?

**ANSWER:**4

##### 20) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the molarity of a sodium hydroxide solution made by dissolving 4 grams NaOH in 250 milliliters of water?

**ANSWER:**0.4

##### 21) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Martin is swinging a yo-yo in a large room with a circular motion perpendicular to a level floor. If the yo-yo breaks away from its string at the top of the yo-yo's circular path, in what direction will the yo-yo initially move:

W) at an angle between horizontal and vertical

X) straight up, toward the ceiling

Y) straight down, to the floor

Z) horizontally, tangent to its original circular path

**ANSWER:**Z) HORIZONTALLY, TANGENT TO ITS ORIGINAL CIRCULAR PATH

##### 21) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the BEST term for the tendency of any mass at rest to remain at rest?

**ANSWER:**INERTIA

##### 22) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

You are given a particular polymer to study, and you notice that it can endure an extremely high amount of stress, but only a very small amount of strain. Which of the following types of polymer is it?

W) Brittle plastic

X) Tough fiber

Y) Elastomer

Z) Plastic with yield

**ANSWER:**X) TOUGH FIBER

##### 22) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The measured bond angle in ammonia is 107.3°, whereas the bond angles in phosphine [FOS-feen] are 93.7°. Which of the following facts correctly identifies the atomic property that makes the two angles different?

W) Ammonia and phosphine have different expected VSEPR geometries

X) Nitrogen is more electronegative than phosphorus

Y) The bonding orbitals of phosphine have more s and less p character than those of ammonia z) The phosphorus atom is much larger than the nitrogen atom

**ANSWER:**Z) THE PHOSPHORUS ATOM IS MUCH LARGER THAN THE NITROGEN ATOM

##### 23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Increasing the root-mean-square speed of gas molecules by 3 times increases their temperature by what factor?

W) 1

X) 2

Y) 3

Z) 9

**ANSWER:**Z) 9

##### 23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A gas has particles with average kinetic energy of 8 Joules. What temperature, in Kelvin, is the gas? Include Boltzmann constant, k, in your answer.

**ANSWER:**16/3K

##### 24) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A particle moves at 80% the speed of light relative to a stationary observer. What is true about this scenario?

W) The observer seems to get longer

X) The particle seems to get longer

Y) The observer and the particle seem to get shorter

Z) The observer and the particle seem to get longer

**ANSWER:**Y) THE OBSERVER AND THE PARTICLE SEEM TO GET SHORTER

##### 24) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The particle is now replaced with a 10 m plank moving at exactly the same speed. What is the plank’s length according to the stationary observer?

W) 3 m

X) 6 m

Y) 9 m

Z) 10 m

**ANSWER:**X) 6 M

##### 25) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following characteristics does NOT accurately describe organisms in the phylum Ctenophora (read as: teh-NOH-foh-rah)?

W) Colloblasts

X) Cilary comb rows

Y) Tentacles

Z) Biradial symmetry

**ANSWER:**Y) TENTACLES

##### 25) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

By name or number, identify all of the following five organisms that are known as true hibernators because they lower their body temperature to conserve energy: 1) western garter snake, 2) woodchuck, 3) skunk, 4) brown bear, 5) little brown bat.

**ANSWER:**WESTERN GARTER SNAKE, WOODCHUCK, LITTLE BROWN BAT (ACCEPT: 1, 2, AND 5)