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1) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

W) 10A18 meters
X) 10A16 meters
Y) 10A14 meters
Z) 10A12 meters

ANSWER: X
1) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the name of the space probe that first orbited Saturn?

ANSWER: Cassini-Huygens (Accept Cassini)
2) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following animals would have the highest levels of myoglobin [my-uh-GLOH-bin] in their muscle?
W) American pronghorn
X) Human being
Y) Weddell seal
Z) Kangaroo rat

ANSWER: Y) WEDDELL SEAL
2) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Some virus species can infect an individual host more than once because they change the shape of molecules exposed on the surface of their virions [VY-ree-ons] so that they are no longer recognized by the host’s immunological memory. The influenza virus can make sudden and drastic changes in these molecules due to a phenomenon called reassortment. Which of the following contributes to the process of reassortment?
W) Widely varying strains of influenza
X) The diversity of animals infected by influenza
Y) The segmented genome found in influenza z) The lack of effective antivirals against influenza until recently

ANSWER: Y) THE SEGMENTED GENOME FOUND IN INFLUENZA
3) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Trilobites are index fossils that lived:
W) in warm, ocean waters
X) during the Achaean geological time
Y) in desert environments
Z) in lakes, rivers and streams

ANSWER: W) in warm, ocean waters
3) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

On the Richter scale, a magnitude 6 earthquake is how much larger than a magnitude 4 earthquake?
W) 1.5 times
X) 4 times
Y) 15 times
Z) 1000 times

ANSWER: Z) 1000 times
4) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Most banded iron formations found today began to form about how many years ago:
W) 2.5 billion years
X) 500 million years
Y) 5 million years
Z) 100,000 years

ANSWER: W) 2.5 BILLION YEARS
4) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Also known as fall-stripes, precipitation falling from the undersurface of a cloud but not reaching the ground is known as:
W) virga
X) fog
Y) Rossby waves
Z) fans

ANSWER: W) VIRGA
5) Toss Up - Energy - Short Answer

What is the name for the intermediate gas in the production of methanol and ammonia?

ANSWER: Syngas (Accept Synthesis Gas)
5) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is closest to the amount of sunlight reflected out from the atmosphere?
W) 20%
X) 40%
Y) 60%
Z) 80%

ANSWER: X) 40%
6) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following countries has the highest amount of its nation’s share of electricity produced by nuclear power:
W) USA
X) France
Y) Germany
Z) Japan

ANSWER: X) FRANCE
6) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What is the most common reference book used by American medical physicians for information regarding drugs?

ANSWER: PDR (ACCEPT: PHYSICIAN’S DESK REFERENCE)
7) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Simplify the following trigonometric expression completely: `(secA - cosA) / tanA`

ANSWER: `sin A`
7) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Find the sum of all interior angles, in degrees, in a regular polygon having 100 sides:

ANSWER: 17,640
8) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

For a given chemical reaction at constant temperature and pressure, if the value for Gibbs free-energy change is a negative, the reaction is always:
W) endothermic
X) exothermic
Y) spontaneous
Z) nonspontaneous

ANSWER: Y) SPONTANEOUS
8) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In a phase diagram, the solid-liquid line has a negative slope for which of the following pure substances:
W) carbon dioxide
X) water
Y) ammonia
Z) argon

ANSWER: X) WATER (Solution: solid water is less dense than liquid water)
9) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A potato cannon fires an ice cream sandwich at an angle of 30° above the horizontal with a speed of 6 meters per second. If g=10 meters per second squared, how long does it take to return to the height of launch?

ANSWER: 0.6 SECONDS
9) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 0.5 kg ice cream sandwich crashes horizontally into a wall at 4 meters per second, and is stopped by the wall in 0.1 seconds. What is the average force exerted on the ice cream sandwich by the wall?

ANSWER: 20 NEWTONS
10) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

You suspect that Cylon, an alien, may be the parent of a human-alien hybrid baby. The alien’s blood type happens to be homozygous [hoh-muh-ZY-guhs] for blood type P for purple, the allele of which is symbolized by IP [eye superscript P]. As with other blood types, the P protein is co-dominant. If the human parent’s blood type is A with a homozygous genotype, what blood phenotype would the baby have to be in order to be a confirmed human-alien hybrid baby?
W) O
X) AP
Y) P
Z) A

ANSWER: X) AP
10) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

How do bacteria protect their own genomic DNA from being cut by their restriction endonucleases [en-duh-NOO-klee-ays-is]?
W) Genomic DNA of a bacterial species does not contain the recognition sequences for its own restriction endonucleases
X) Bacteria apply protective methyl groups to DNA at sites recognized by their restriction endonucleases
Y) Bacteria have proteins associated with their genomic DNA, preventing the endonucleases from getting close enough to cut
Z) Sequestration of chromosomal DNA in the nucleoid region of a bacterial cell protects it from being cut by restriction endonucleases

ANSWER: X) BACTERIA APPLY PROTECTIVE METHYL GROUPS TO DNA AT SITES RECOGNIZED BY THEIR RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES
11) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a glacial feature that is NOT caused by the deposition of sediments:
W) kame
X) kettle
Y) drumlin
Z) bergshrund

ANSWER: Z) bergshrund
11) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Closely spaced isobars on a weather map most directly indicate which of the following weather-related events:
W) calm conditions
X) windy conditions
Y) a gentle pressure gradient
Z) torrential rainfall

ANSWER: X) windy conditions
12) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following was the evidence that Alfred Wegener did not have that would have convinced the scientific community that his theory of continental drift was correct:
W) paleomagnetic studies
X) apparent fit of the continents
Y) locations of ancient glacial deposits
Z) comparative fossil studies

ANSWER: W) PALEOMAGNETIC STUDIES
12) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of seismic waves:
W) the modified Mercalli scale measures earthquakes based on direct observations of damage
X) the actual underground point of origin of an earthquake is called the hypocenter
Y) the typical velocity of a P-wave near the Earth’s surface is about 5 kilometers per second
Z) S-waves cause the most damage during an earthquake

ANSWER: Z) S-WAVES CAUSE THE MOST DAMAGE DURING AN EARTHQUAKE (Solution: surface waves cause the most damage)
13) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

In Triangle ABC the angle bisector of A intersects BC at D. Given AB=9, AC=21, and DB=15, compute DC.

ANSWER: 35
13) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

In triangle ABC, AB=14, AC=13, and BC=15. Let the incenter be I. Compute Cl in simplest radical form.

ANSWER: square root of 65
14) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the scientific name of the phylum characterized by the presence of jointed appendages?

ANSWER: ARTHROPODA (DO NOT ACCEPT: ARTHROPODS)
14) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the common name for the native annual plant with the following description: It has stems that coil around a support for climbing, the leaves are alternate compound with 3 leaflets, and it has a thin-walled fruit that the Chippewa traditionally used as a food source and digestive aid.

ANSWER: HOGPEANUT (ACCEPT: WILD PEANUT) (DO NOT ACCEPT: PEANUT)
15) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following factors does NOT directly impact the climate of a geographic location?
W) Elevation
X) Ocean currents
Y) Longitude
Z) Latitude

ANSWER: Y) LONGITUDE
15) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Of the history of the universe, which of the following best represents the period of time Earth has existed?
W) Since the beginning
X) The last one-third
Y) The last one-hundredth
Z) The last one-thousandth

ANSWER: X) THE LAST ONE-THIRD
16) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the name for a change in wavelength between a scattered x-ray and an incident x-ray?

ANSWER: COMPOTON SHIFT
16) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

If h is Planck’s constant and k is the wavelength of a photon, what is a photon’s momentum (relativistic)?

ANSWER: H/K
17) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Which famous chemist formulated the rule that mass is conserved through chemical reactions?

ANSWER: Lavosier
17) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent?
W) Pb2+
X) 12
Y) Ag+
Z) Pb

ANSWER: Y) Ag+
18) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The molecule chlorine trifluoride has what molecular geometry?

ANSWER: T-SHAPED
18) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Given a box of length a and a particle of radius b, molecular weight c, and velocity d, what is the average position of the particle in the box with respect to length?

ANSWER: a/2
19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Plank’s constant, denoted by the lowercase letter h, is a very very very small number. The related reduced Plank’s constant is denoted by
W) lowercase r
X) lowercase h sub lowercase r
Y) lowercase h with a bar through the top
Z) lowercase h with two dots above it

ANSWER: Y) LOWERCASE H WITH A BAR THROUGH THE TOP
19) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the ratio of Plank’s constant to the reduced Plank’s constant?

ANSWER:
20) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Simplify the following expression: `x^(1/2) x^(2/5)`

ANSWER: `x^(9/10)`
20) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the slope of a line perpendicular to the line given by the graph of the equation, -5x = -6y + 4

ANSWER: `-6/5`
21) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Find the following number: When the number, one-half of the number, and one-quarter of the number are added, and then 8 is subtracted, the result is 2 less than twice the number:

ANSWER: -24
21) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Give the value of c that completes the square of the following Expression: `x^2 +2x/5 + c`

ANSWER: 1/25
22) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

What is the third stage in the formation of coal?
W) Lignite
X) Anthracite
Y) Peat
Z) Bituminous

ANSWER: Z) Bituminous
22) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

Order the following sedimentary rocks from finest texture to most coarse texture: 1. Siltstone 2. Breccia 3. Sandstone

ANSWER: 1, 3, 2
23) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a weak electrolyte:
W) ammonia
X) dilute sulfuric acid
Y) 1 molar sodium chloride
Z) dilute perchloric acid

ANSWER: W) AMMONIA
23) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A molecular solid will most typically have which of the following melting points:
W) very high
X) high to very high
Y) low
Z) variable

ANSWER: Y) LOW
24) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the total voltage of a circuit with a total current of 10 Amperes running through four resistors placed in parallel, each with a resistance of 4 Ohms?

ANSWER: 10 Volts
24) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What does the abbreviation MOSFET stand for?

ANSWER: Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
25) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field at a right angle to the field. The work done by the field is:
W) proportional to the charge and the field strength
X) proportional to the velocity and the charge
Y) proportional to the velocity and the field strength
Z) zero

ANSWER: Z) ZERO
25) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

The rare-earth neodymium magnet, which is one of the strongest types of permanent magnets, is made from an alloy of neodymium. Name one of the two other elements that are used in these magnets.

ANSWER: IRON OR BORON