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1) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

The number 22.5 is 5 percent of what number?

ANSWER: 450
1) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following numbers is divisible by 9:
W) 3191
X) 3527
Y) 212,526
Z) 439,327

ANSWER: Y) 212,526 (Solution: sum of the numbers divisible by 9)
2) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The law that states that symmetries correspond to conserved quantities and vice-versa is called
W) Einstein’s Conjecture
X) Noether’s Theorem
Y) Reimann’s Hypothesis
Z) Penrose’s Theory

ANSWER: X) NOETHER"S THEOREM
2) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Electric charge, lepton number, hypercharge, weak hypercharge, flavor, and color conversion all stem from invariance of what type of transfrom

ANSWER: GAUGE TRANSFORM
3) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A compound which is an electron pair donor is generally classified as a:
W) Lewis acid
X) Bronsted base
Y) Bronsted acid
Z) Lewis base

ANSWER: Z) Lewis base
3) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Name the chemical element that is eleventh in the Lanthanide Series inthe p=eriodic table. Because of the metal's high thermal-neutron-absorption c=ross section, it hasbeen of much interest in terms of use in nuclear reacto=r hardware. The chemical symbol for thiselement is Er.

ANSWER: erbium
4) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

What are the 3 general layers of the Sun=92s atmosphere from INNERMOST to O=UTERMOST?

ANSWER: Photosphere; chromosphere; corona
4) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What would happen in the mid-northern latitudes if the tilt of the Earth=92=s axis decreased by 15 degrees:
W) warmer summers and warmer winters
X) cooler summers and cooler winters
Y) cooler summers and warmer winters
Z) colder summers and colder winters

ANSWER: Y) cooler summers and warmer winters
5) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Color photography and the eventual development of the color television was advanced most directly by:
W) Planck’s quantum theory of light
X) Young’s and Helmholtz’s three color theory of light
Y) the three color pigment theory
Z) Kichoffs understanding of the photoelectric effect

ANSWER: X) YOUNG’S AND HELMHOLTZ’S THREE COLOR THEORY OF LIGHT
5) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Ignoring friction and assuming g = 9.8 m/s2, how high will a stone reach, in meters rounded to the first decimal place, if launched vertically from rest at 15 m/s?

ANSWER: 11.5 METERS
6) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the next term in the Fibonacci sequence whose last three terms were -- 34, 55, 89

ANSWER: 144
6) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the sum of the internal angles of a pentagon?

ANSWER: 540 degrees (n-gon: 180 deg x (n-2))
7) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What element has the lowest boiling point?

ANSWER: HELIUM
7) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following bonds is the MOST polar?
W) B-C
X) B-N
Y) B-O
Z) B-F

ANSWER: Z) B-F
8) Toss Up - Energy - Short Answer

In an AC circuit, if the voltage and current are 90 degrees out of phase, what term can be used to describe the load?

ANSWER: REACTIVE
8) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following components is the greatest contributor to no-load losses on transformers?
W) Eddy current losses in the core laminations
X) Heat losses due to no-load current
Y) Dielectric losses
Z) Hysteresis losses

ANSWER: Z) HYSTERESIS LOSSES
9) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

Which gas was in short supply in the Earth’s atmosphere prior to the evolution of the citric acid cycle?

ANSWER: OXYGEN
9) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Neurons can communicate with each another at synapses via synaptic vesicles. Which of the following does NOT participate in communication at these sites?
W) Neurotransmitter
X) Gated channels
Y) ATP dependent channels
Z) Acetylcholine [uh-seet-l-KOH-leen]

ANSWER: Y) ATP DEPENDENT CHANNELS
10) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

As the bottom plate moves downward in a subduction zone, pressure and heat cause the subducting crust to release volatiles and localized melting occurs. If the ocean trench associated with this subduction zone is located far from a continent, what volcanic feature will be formed in response to this process?

ANSWER: ISLAND ARC (ACCEPT: ARC)
10) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What process is responsible for the remineralization of organic carbon, returning it to its inorganic state, within a timeframe shorter than geologic timescales?

ANSWER: DECOMPOSITION
11) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

In simplest terms, find the value of the limit as x approaches 0 of (4Ax - 2Ax) / x

ANSWER: ln(2) (do not accept ln(4) - ln(2))
11) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

How many real solutions for x does the equation x = ln(x) + 2 have?

ANSWER: 2
12) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Cyclic quadrilateral ABCD is such that angle ADC is equal to 20 degrees and angle DCB is equal to 100 degrees. What is the acute angle formed by the intersection of sides AB and CD?

ANSWER: 80 degrees
12) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Over positive real x, what is the minimum value of the function `f(x) = x^2 + 16/x`?

ANSWER: 12
13) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

The margin of an American Elm tree leaf would most generally be called:
W) divided
X) entire
Y) dentate
Z) lacerate

ANSWER: Y) DENTATE
13) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following genera of plants contains a species that traps and digests insects:
W) Cypripedium (Pron: sip-ri-PID-ee-um)
X) Drosera
Y) Podocarpus
Z) Dicentra (Pron: di-cen-tra)

ANSWER: X) DROSERA
14) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

For individuals who are “Lactose Intolerant,” the reason for their gastric distress is the production of:
W) methane
X) acetic acid and nitrogen
Y) lactic acid and carbon dioxide
Z) acetic acid and methane

ANSWER: Y) LACTIC ACID AND CARBON DIOXIDE
14) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which acid connects the 2-deoxyribose units within every DNA strand:
W) acetic acid
X) phosphoric acid
Y) citric acid
Z) glycolic acid

ANSWER: X) PHOSPHORIC ACID
15) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a property of all amino acids?
W) They contain both carboxylic [kahr-bok-SIL-ik] acid and amine [uh-MEEN] functional groups
X) They are chiral [KY-ruhl]
Y) They are considered organic molecules z) They are generally referred to by their common name

ANSWER: X) THEY ARE CHIRAL
15) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the pH of a 0.001 molar solution of hydrochloric acid?

ANSWER: 3
16) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT used in determining relative geologic time:
W) principle of superposition
X) principle of original horizontality
Y) principle of cross-cutting
Z) radioisotope half-lives

ANSWER: Z) RADIOISOTOPE HALF-LIVES
16) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

Arrange the following 3 oceanic crust features from the YOUNGEST to the OLDEST: abyssal plain; continental shelf; mid-ocean ridge

ANSWER: MID-OCEAN RIDGE; ABYSSAL PLAIN; CONTINENTAL SHELF
17) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following elements would most likely be a silvery solid at room temperature?
W) Sodium
X) Silicon
Y) Selenium
Z) Astatine

ANSWER: W) Sodium
17) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

How does hydrogen bonding affect the boiling point of water?
W) It significantly lowers it
X) It slightly lowers it
Y) It increases it
Z) It has no effect

ANSWER: Y) It increases it
18) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Groundwater that is rich in calcium and magnesium bicarbonates is termed:
W) hard water
X) soft water
Y) well water
Z) recharge water

ANSWER: W) HARD WATER
18) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following descriptions is NOT true of eskers:
W) they were formed above glaciers by the widening of crevasses
X) they are low, steep-sided ridges of sand and gravel
Y) deposits were laid down by running water
Z) their deposits are roughly sorted and bedded

ANSWER: W) THEY WERE FORMED ABOVE GLACIERS BY THE WIDENING OF CREVASSES
19) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the term used to describe the type of mathematical methods devoted to the analysis, representation, and manipulation of complex waveforms?

ANSWER: FOURIER ANALYSIS
19) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

In HTML, What are the beginning and ending tags for a definition list?

ANSWER: <DL> AND </DL> (read as: ANGLE BRACKETS DL AND ANGLE BRACKETS SLASH DL) BRACKETS FORWARD SLASH DL)
20) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Magma that squeezes into horizontal cracks and hardens forms a
W) dike.
X) batholith.
Y) sill.
Z) volcanic neck.

ANSWER: Y-- SILL
20) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Magma that squeezes into vertical cracks and hardens forms a
W) dike.
X) batholith.
Y) rill.
Z) volcanic neck.

ANSWER: W-- DIKE
21) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is both fluorescent and radioactive:
W) calcite
X) halite
Y) talc
Z) zircon

ANSWER: Z) ZIRCON
21) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following both have very similar chemical compositions but exhibit different colors:
W) ruby and sapphire
X) opal and pearl
Y) diamond and quartz
Z) amber and citrine

ANSWER: W) RUBY AND SAPPHIRE
22) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

What cloud type is characterized by a formless cloud layer that is almost uniformly dark gray?
W) Cumulonimbus [kyoo-myuh-loh-NIM-buhs]
X) Altocirrus
Y) Cumulus z) Nimbostratus [nim-boh-STRAT-uhs]

ANSWER: Z) NIMBOSTRATUS
22) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the term for a ridge of till that is formed when the lateral moraines of two adjacent alpine glaciers coalesce [koh-uh-LES]?

ANSWER: MEDIAL MORAINE
23) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

If an application freezes while running in Windows 98, the default setup allows the application to be closed by pressing:
W) Escape key
X) Control + Escape keys
Y) Control + Alt + Delete keys
Z) Control + Delete keys

ANSWER: Y) CONTROL + ALT + DELETE KEYS
23) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is a measure of memory or storage capacity that is 2 to the 50th power bytes or, in decimal, approximately a thousand terabytes?

ANSWER: PETABYTE
24) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

The period of revolution of a particle traveling in uniform circular motion is a function of what two variables?

ANSWER: VELOCITY (ACCEPT: CENTRIPETAL FORCE) AND RADIUS (ACCEPT: CIRCUMFERENCE, DIAMETER)
24) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

You are asked to determine whether a king’s crown is really made of gold. You weigh the crown; it weighs 8 newtons in air and 7 newtons in water. Its volume is 0.0001 cubic meters. Given that the density of gold is 19,000 kilograms per cubic meter, the density of lead is 11,000 kilograms per cubic meter, and the density of iron is 8,000 kilograms per cubic meter, the king’s crown is made of which material?

ANSWER: IRON
25) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What is the name for a place where trees are grown for display, educational, or scientific purposes?

ANSWER: ARBORETUM
25) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What is the term for the steep temperature gradient that exists in the middle zone of a lake and gives rise to thermally induced vertical stratification of the water?

ANSWER: THERMOCLINE