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1) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

An electron moves 1 cm from one side of a parallel plate capacitor to the other, passing through a constant electric field of 1 N/C. What is its change in electric potential in volts?
W) -1
X) -0.01
Y) 0.01
Z) 1

ANSWER: Y) 0.01
1) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Two capacitors in series have a combined capacitance of 15 microfarads. One capacitor has twice the capacitance of the other, what is the capacitance of the larger capacitor in microfarads?

ANSWER: 45
2) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the Gulf of Maine?
W) It is highly fertile
X) A gyre [JYUHR] circulates nutrients and pollution through the Gulf
Y) It is among the deepest gulfs in the world z) It is sub-arctic, but has a wide range in water temperature

ANSWER: Y) IT IS AMONG THE DEEPEST GULFS IN THE WORLD
2) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following natural phenomena are associated with a patterned seasonal occurrence that ranges from May 15 to November 30?
W) East Pacific Ocean hurricane season
X) Continental U.S. tornado season
Y) North Indian Ocean typhoon season
Z) American Southwest monsoon season

ANSWER: W) EAST PACIFIC OCEAN HURRICANE SEASON
3) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A wooden block suspended by a cable and struck by a bullet. The block swings upward, and it’s maximum height is recorded. This is a description of what device?

ANSWER: BALLISTIC PENDULUM
3) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 1.98 kilogram block is suspended by a 3 meter long string. The block is struck by a 20 gram bullet moving at 500 meters per second. The bullet becomes lodged inside the block, which begins its swing at what speed?

ANSWER: 5 METERS PER SECOND
4) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Order the four gas giants in size from the largest to the smallest.

ANSWER: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
4) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which one of these statements about Neptune's moon, Triton, is true?
W) It orbits in retrograde motion.
X) Its orbit is highly eccentric.
Y) It fractured billions of years ago and reformed.
Z) It does not have an atmosphere.

ANSWER: ) It orbits in retrograde motion.
5) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Along with the word "radioactivity," Marie and Pierre Curie coined the names (discovered) which two radioactive elements. What are they?

ANSWER: POLONIUM AND RADIUM
5) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Marie and Pierre Curie used two uranium minerals to test their theories of radioactivity. The more radioactive mineral was pitchblende. What was the other mineral?

ANSWER: TORBERNITE (OR CHALCOLITE
6) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

A four-chambered heart is found among reptiles in the order
W) Chelonia.
X) Crocodilia.
Y) Rhyncocephalia.
Z) Squamata.

ANSWER: X) Crocodilia.
6) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Gallstones are most often the result of:
W) gallbladder irritation
X) eating cherries and swallowing the pits
Y) precipitation of cholesterol
Z) accumulated bile pigment

ANSWER: Y) precipitation of cholesterol
7) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

By passing current through a wire wrapped around an iron rod, William Sturgeon invented the:

ANSWER: ELECTROMAGNET
7) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of Guglielmo Marconi’s experiments on wireless transmission:
W) in 1901 he transmitted a signal from Newfoundland to England
X) he defied current belief on line-of-sight transmission
Y) his work was a practical application of the work of James Clerk Maxwell
Z) his success was a vindication of his belief in the reflective properties of the ionosphere

ANSWER: Z) HIS SUCCESS WAS A VINDICATION OF HIS BELIEF IN THE REFLECTIVE PROPERTIES OF THE IONOSPHERE (Solution: the ionosphere was unknown at that time)
8) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

What is a flower called if it is cut longitudinally through the middle and produces 2 halves that are mirror images of each other:
W) actinomorphic
X) polymorphic
Y) bimorphic
Z) zygomorphic

ANSWER: W) ACTINOMORPHIC
8) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

What would the fruit be known as if the separate carpels of one gynoecium (pronounced: GINE-ee-sea-um) fuse during development:
W) simple fruit
X) aggregate fruit
Y) multiple fruit
Z) complex fruit

ANSWER: X) AGGREGATE FRUIT
9) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

The control rods in a nuclear reactor must be filled with substances that will absorb neutrons. These are commonly known as?

ANSWER: NEUTRON POISONS
9) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not a good neutron poison?
W) Cadmium
X) Hafnium
Y) Boron
Z) Gold

ANSWER: Z) GOLD
10) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the solution set of the inequality `(x-1)^2 <= 0` [the quantity x minus one squared is less than or equal to zero]?

ANSWER: 1
10) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

If function f is defined by `f(x) = (4x^2 - 12x)/(x^2 - 9)` [f of x equals a fraction with numerator 4 x squared minus 12 x and denominator x squared minus 9], then at x = 3, which of the following is true?
W) The graph of f has a vertical asymptote
X) The graph of f has a hole on the x axis
Y) The graph of f has a hole at (3, 2)
Z) f(x) = 0

ANSWER: Y) THE GRAPH OF F HAS A HOLE AT (3, 2)
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of helium?
W) deep sea divers breath a mixture of helium and oxygen
X) breathing helium causes a temporary change in the pitch and quality of one’s voice
Y) helium gas is commonly used by dentists as a mild anesthetic
Z) a mixture of helium and neon gas produced the first gas laser

ANSWER: Y) HELIUM GAS IS COMMONLY USED BY DENTISTS AS A MILD ANESTHETIC
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

It is estimated that each person in the United States consumes an average of 100 pounds of sucrose each year. Which two simple sugars are linked to make a sucrose molecule?

ANSWER: GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE (ACCEPT: D-GLUCOSE AND D-FRUCTOSE OR ALDOHEXOSE AND KETOHEXOSE)
12) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The aldohexoses have 4 asymmetric carbon atoms and can therefore exist as how many stereoisomers?

ANSWER: 16 (Solution: 24=16)
12) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Calculate the molecular weight of an ether if a 500 milliliter flask is filled with 0.6 grams of the gas at 300K and at a pressure of 380 mmHg:

ANSWER: 60G/MOL (ACCEPT: 60) PV (Solution: n = rt ; = 0; = 0.0104mol; 0.6g/0.01mol = 60g/mol))
13) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Find the sum of the squares of all roots of the polynomial `x^5 - 3x^3 + 5x^2 + 6x + 7`.

ANSWER: 6
13) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Find the product of the real roots of the polynomials `x^4 + x^2 - 2`.

ANSWER: -1
14) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which vitamin is water soluble?
W) Vitamin A
X) Vitamin K
Y) Vitamin E
Z) Vitamin B12

ANSWER: Z) VITAMIN B12
14) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which if the following is a purine?
W) Uracil
X) Cytosine
Y) Guanine
Z) Thymine

ANSWER: Y) GUANINE
15) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Which element is represented by the symbol B?

ANSWER: Boron
15) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The IUPAC (pron: I-U-PAC) name for formaldehyde is
W) methanone.
X) acetal.
Y) methanal.
Z) propanone.

ANSWER: Y) methanal.
16) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following catabolic pathways liberates carbon dioxide?
W) Electron transport
X) Glycolysis [gly-KOL-uh-sis]
Y) Citric acid cycle
Z) Cori cycle

ANSWER: Y) CITRIC ACID CYCLE
16) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

If one mole of a substance with a molar mass of 20 is burned at constant pressure and 800 kilojoules of energy is released as heat, what is the standard enthalpy change, in kilojoules, when a 5-gram sample of this substance is burned at constant pressure?

ANSWER: -200 (MUST INCLUDE NEGATIVE SIGN IN ANSWER)
17) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

A common type of distortion in CRT monitors in which horizontal and vertical lines bend outwards towards the edge of the display is called:
W) barrel distortion
X) pincushion distortion
Y) spherical distortion
Z) trapezoid distortion

ANSWER: W) BARREL DISTORTION
17) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

The largest number of individuals of a particular species that can by be maintained indefinitely in a given part of the environment is defined by what ecological term:
W) biomic load
X) biomass limit
Y) cohort load
Z) carrying capacity

ANSWER: Z) CARRYING CAPACITY
18) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

For someone standing at 22° North latitude, how many degrees above the horizon will the north celestial pole be?

ANSWER: 22
18) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true:
W) the rotation of the Sun’s surface is faster at the equator than at the poles
X) the apparent magnitude of an RR Lyrae depends most on its distance from the Earth
Y) Venus appears its largest to nighttime observers when it is in its full phase
Z) a star’s light curve typically plots brightness verses time

ANSWER: Y) Venus appears its largest to nighttime observers when it is in its full phase
19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not a difference between light and sound waves?
W) sound requires a medium; light does not
X) sound is a longitudinal wave; light is a transverse wave
Y) light waves are quantized; sound waves are not
Z) light propagates at the same speed in all reference frames; sound does not

ANSWER: Y) LIGHT WAVES ARE QUANTIZED; SOUND WAVES ARE NOT
19) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A group of passengers have been traveling on a spaceship for 15 years, as measured by an observer at their origin. When they emerge, they have aged 10 years. Assuming that their speed was roughly constant throughout the trip, what was it? Your answer should be in terms of c, the speed of light.

ANSWER: SQRT(5) * C / 3
20) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

If x >39 and 39, x and x + 9 are the sides of a right triangle, which of the following is the value of x?
W) 60
X) 70
Y) 80
Z) 90

ANSWER: Y) 80
20) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the theorem that states that every positive integer has a unique prime factorization?

ANSWER: Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
21) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The identity of an element is determined by
W) the number of protons in its nucleus
X) its atomic mass
Y) the number of neutrons in its nucleus
Z) the density of the solid

ANSWER: W) THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN ITS NUCLEUS
21) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following gases effuses most rapidly?
W) nitrogen
X) oxygen
Y) hydrogen chloride
Z) ammonia

ANSWER: Z) AMMONIA
22) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the most common statistical term for the assumption, when comparing sample means, that there is no significant difference between the two samples?

ANSWER: Null Hypothesis
22) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

In order, what are the prime numbers between 30 and 50?

ANSWER: 31, 37, 41, 43, 47
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following scientists did not discover the electron, neutron, or proton?
W) Rutherford
X) Chadwick
Y) Thomson
Z) Yukawa

ANSWER: Z) YUKAWA
23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 50 kg man climbs up Half Dome from the floor of Yosemite Valley, ascending 1500 meters. To two significant figures, how many kilocalories does he convert into gravitational potential energy? Take g to be 10 meters per second squared.

ANSWER: 180 KILOCALORIES
24) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

On a topographic map, lines that indicate water depth are termed:
W) isogonic lines
X) bathymetric lines
Y) isopachs
Z) none of these

ANSWER: X) bathymetric lines
24) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

In the oceans, waves and surf currents are generated by:
W) wind
X) El-Nino
Y) salinity and temperature gradients
Z) the Intertropical Convergence Zone

ANSWER: W) wind
25) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the quantum for vibrational energy?

ANSWER: PHONON
25) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not a gauge boson?
W) photon
X) gluon
Y) muon
Z) Z boson

ANSWER: Y) MUON