1) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice
A developing bird embryo obtains nutrients from the egg’s
1) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice
A four-chambered heart is found among reptiles in the order
2) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice
Chemical weathering of feldspars results in hydrous alumino-silicates otherwise known as
X) clay minerals
Y) amphiboles (am-fee-bowls)
2) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice
Which of these features of sedimentary rocks is related to superposition?
3) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Modern automobiles use a catalytic converter to
W) increase horsepower by burning more gasoline
X) absorb pollutants from the exhaust
Y) complete the combustion of unburned gases
Z) cool the exhaust gases
3) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice
A catalyst will NOT
W) increase the forward reaction rate
X) shift the equilibrium to favor the products
Y) alter the reaction pathway
Z) increase the speed at which equilibrium will be achieved
4) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer
If one end of a single polypeptide chain has an amino group exposed, what functional group is typically exposed at the opposite end?ANSWER: CARBOXYL
4) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer
What is the most common name of the protein that synthesizes DNA?ANSWER: DNA POLYMERASE (ACCEPT: POLYMERASE)
5) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is true of bases:
W) they give rise to hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
X) they are substances that accept or react with hydrogen ions
Y) they always contain the hydroxide ion in it’s structure
Z) they have a pH below 7
5) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer
Myoglobin binds oxygen in what tissue in the human body?ANSWER: MUSCLE
6) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer
Select, by name or number, which of the following are examples of ionizing radiation: 1) beta particles, 2) neutrons, 3) alpha particles, 4) neutrinos, 5) x-rays, 6) ultraviolet rays.ANSWER: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6
6) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice
Select which of the following is NOT true about Bremsstrahlung radiation.
W) X-rays can be produced by firing high energy electrons at metal
X) In an x-ray tube, the continuous x-ray spectrum produced has a sharp edge at the long wavelength end and a gradual tail at the short wavelength end
Y) The characteristic x-ray peak of Bremsstrahlung radiation is entirely dependent upon the target material
Z) Thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation is produced in plasmas.
7) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer
What is the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in kilojoules per mole, for hydrogen gas?ANSWER: 0
7) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer
Name all of the following five compounds that are soluble in water: 1) sodium sulfate, 2) lead (II) iodide, 3) barium chloride, 4) iron (II) hydroxide, 5) calcium sulfate.ANSWER: 1, 3 (ACCEPT: SODIUM SULFATE, BARIUM CHLORIDE)
8) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is the BEST reason why the Sun’s corona primarily emits x-rays:
W) it has a high-strength magnetic field
X) it is where most of the neutrinos escape to outer space
Y) it is a convecting zone
Z) it is very hot
8) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is a spacecraft that is stationed to continuously observe the Sun:
Y) SOHO (read as: so-ho)
Z) Galileo 3
9) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice
In a class three lever,
W) the fulcrum lies between the effort force and the load
X) the effort force lies between the fulcrum and the load
Y) the load lies between the fulcrum and the effort force
Z) the effort force is applied at the fulcrum
9) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer
An Atwood machine has a mass of 3 kilograms suspended across a pulley from a mass of 5 kilograms. The upward force on the 3 kilogram mass has what magnitude in terms of g, the gravitational acceleration at the surface of Earth?ANSWER: 3G/R
10) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer
Lake Vostok, an Antarctic subglacial lake, is thought to be a potential analogue for two bodies of astrobiological interest. Name one.ANSWER: EUROPA OR ENCELADUS (read as: ehn-sehl-AH-duhs)
10) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer
The Jovian moon Europa is thought to have a liquid water ocean underlying a water ice shell. What mechanism is responsible for warming the Europan ocean?ANSWER: TIDAL HEATING (ACCEPT: GRAVITATIONAL HEATING OR INTERNAL FRICTION CAUSED BY JUPITER’S GRAVITY)
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Under which of the following conditions will iron rust:
W) in water
X) in water and oxygen
Y) in oil
Z) in oil and water
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer
In order to compare two different gas samples, scientists use what is called the STP. What does STP stand for?ANSWER: STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (ACCEPT: 0° C OR 273 K AND 1 ATM OR 760 mm Hg)
12) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice
The Salk vaccine against poliomyelitis contained three slightly different
W) killed polio viruses.
X) weakened polio viruses.
Y) killed polio antibodies.
Z) weakened polio antibodies.
12) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice
Paralysis often results from polio because the polio virus
W) activates suppressor T-cells.
X) activates killer T-cells.
Y) kills muscle cells.
Z) kills nerve cells.
13) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice
Crux, Ara, Reticulum, and Tucana are all best known as:
W) craters on the moon
X) canals on mars
Z) maria on the moon
13) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer
What is the total magnifying power of a refracting telescope that has an objective lens focal length of 12 meters and an eyepiece focal length of 0.3 meters?ANSWER: 40X (ACCEPT: 40 TIMES OR 40) (Solution: m = 12m / 0.3m = 40X)
14) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice
Super Black is:
W) A term given to any material which passes the Draper point after which the material will glow as a result of blackbody radiation.
X) A surface treatment that reflects much less light than the darkest conventional black paint and is used to reduce unwanted reflections.
Y) A theoretical and nonexistent substance with an emissivity greater than 1, therefore allowing it to absorb more light than an ideal black body.
Z) A material with an emissivity of below .01, a quantity so low that the amount of light it reflects is enough to render one blind that is looking at it from hundreds of meters away.
14) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice
A perfect black body radiation was first postulated by:
W) Gustav Kirchoff
X) James Maxwell
Y) Josiah Gibbs
Z) Carl Gauss
15) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice
If the human SR
Y) gene is inactivated in the first week of gestation, which of the following will occur:
W) the embryo will die
X) the embryo will remain female
Y) the embryo will continue as a male
Z) the embryo will remain in a quiescent state
15) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer
To what intermediate molecule of the citric acid cycle does succinate dehydrogenase oxidize succinate?ANSWER: Fumarate
16) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer
What law describes the speed that a fluid is expelled through a hole from a container that is filled to some height above the hole?ANSWER: TORRICELLI’S LAW
16) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice
A fluid container is filled 5 centimeters above a small hole in its side through which fluid can escape. Assuming gravitational acceleration to be 10 m/s2, how fast is the liquid expelled?
W) 0.25 m/s
X) 0.5 m/s
Y) 1 m/s
Z) 2 m/s
17) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice
Which of the following BEST describes the function of the golgi (read as: GOAL-gee) complex:
W) metabolism of carbohydrates
X) production of peroxides
Y) modification and packaging of proteins for exocytosis
Z) storage of lipids
17) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer
Most corticosteroids are synthesized in what specific part of the human body?ANSWER: ADRENAL CORTEX (ACCEPT: ADRENAL GLANDS)
18) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice
The single electron in the ground state of hydrogen is bound to the proton by 13.6 electron volts. If it is excited to the n = 2 state, by which of the following energies, in electron volts, is it now bound?
18) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer
A model truck with a mass of 1.0 kilogram is accelerated by an electric motor from rest to 0.8 meters per second in 20 milliseconds. What is the average power, in watts, delivered by the motor during this time?ANSWER: 16
19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice
Norton’s Theorem states that any complicated circuit of resistors and voltages may be rearranged into
W) an equivalent resistance in series with an equivalent voltage.
X) an equivalent resistance in parallel with an equivalent voltage.
Y) an equivalent resistance in series with an equivalent current source.
Z) an equivalent resistance in parallel with an equivalent current source.
19) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice
The Thevenin Equivalent voltage of a circuit is 18V and the Thevenin Equivalent resistance is 3 Ohms. The maximum power output over the load in such a circuit is
W) 15 W
X) 21 W
Y) 27 W
Z) 33 W
20) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer
Amebocytes from Limulus organisms are currently used in the medical field to test for the presence of what substances?ANSWER: BACTERIAL TOXINS (ACCEPT: TOXINS)
20) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer
By name or number, identify all of the following five molecules that function as vertebrate neurotransmitters: 1) endorphins, 2) serotonin, 3) biotin, 4) enkephalins, 5) dopamine.ANSWER: ENDORPHINS, SEROTONIN, ENKEPHALINS, DOPAMINE (ACCEPT: 1, 2, 4, AND 5)
21) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice
Baryonic matter in the universe exists primarily in what state?
21) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer
Name the weather phenomenon in which luminous plasma is created by a coronal discharge from a grounded object in an electric field in the atmosphere.ANSWER: ST. ELMO’S FIRE
22) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer
Three of these things belong together. Which rock does NOT belong: 1) gneiss, 2) granite, 3) basalt, or 4) limestone?ANSWER: LIMESTONE (ACCEPT: 4)
22) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice
What kind of minerals do copper ores tend to be?
W) Native element
X) Carbonate and sulfide
Y) Oxide and phosphate
Z) Hydrocarbon and halide
23) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer
What type of magnetism exists in substances in which electrons are unpaired and are very weakly attracted by magnetic fields?ANSWER: Paramagnetism (accept: paramagnetic)
23) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice
About how many calories per gram will it take to sublimate water at standard pressure:
24) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer
What is the one type of infectious agent that contains no nucleic acid?ANSWER: PRION
24) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice
Loss of the retinoblastoma gene product, Rb, causes cancer by affecting which of the following portions of the cell cycle?
W) G1/S checkpoint
X) S/G2 checkpoint
Y) G2/M checkpoint z) M/G1 checkpoint
25) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer
What is the angular velocity of a wheel with a radius of 15 meters and a surface velocity of 120 meters/sec:ANSWER: 8 RAD/SEC (Solution: • •= v/r = 120/15 = 8)
25) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer
Assuming friction is negligible, how long will it take an object to stop if it has an initial velocity of 5 meters per second, if the average braking force is 20 Newtons, and if the object’s mass is 20 kilograms?ANSWER: 5 SECONDS (Solution: v = at, f = ma => t = v/a = v m / f = 20 x 5 / 20 = 5 seconds)