##### 1) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A large spring requires a force of 150 Newtons to compress it only 0.010 meters. What is the spring constant of the spring?

**ANSWER:**15000 NEWTONS PER METER

##### 1) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The number of overtones, and their relative intensities, is associated with what property of the tone generated by a musical instrument?

W) quality

X) interference pattern

Y) range

Z) attack pattern

**ANSWER:**W) QUALITY

##### 2) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

In studies of trees, one finds just one leaf bud and one leaf at each node on a walnut twig. This arrangement of leaf bud and leaf is known as:

W) alternate

X) opposite

Y) whorled

Z) none of the above

**ANSWER:**W) alternate

##### 2) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The complex of sugar polymers and proteins which are patchily distributed on the plasma membranes of animal cells is called

W) cellulose

X) chitin

Y) glyocalyx

Z) cytoskeleton

**ANSWER:**Y) glyocalyx

##### 3) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is MOST directly involved in the motility and intercellular signaling in T-cells:

W) filamentous actin

X) 200-nanometer myosin fibrils

Y) cathepsin-myosin complexes

Z) microvilli

**ANSWER:**W) filamentous actin

##### 3) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What common organic molecule has a hydrocarbon phytol tail and a multi-ring structure with a magnesium metal ion in the center?

**ANSWER:**Chlorophyll (Accept: Any Chlorophyll)

##### 4) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

For the molecular orbital diagram of H2, in which of the following locations are the electrons located?

W) One electron in each hydrogen's 1s atomic orbital

X) Both electrons in the sigma 1s orbital

Y) Both electrons in the sigma* [sigma-star] 1s orbital

Z) Both electrons in the pi 1s orbital

**ANSWER:**X) BOTH ELECTRONS IN THE SIGMA 1S ORBITAL

##### 4) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Providing your answer to one significant figure, determine the pH of a 5.0 molar solution of acetic acid, given that acetic acid's Kg is `2 xx 10^-5`.

**ANSWER:**2

##### 5) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

A total solar eclipse is likely when

W) Full moon occurs at descending node.

X) New moon occurs at ascending node.

Y) New moon occurs at apogee.

Z) New moon occurs at perigee.

**ANSWER:**X) New moon occurs at ascending node.

##### 5) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Name the planet that has the greatest number of known moons:

W) Earth

X) Saturn

Y) Jupiter

Z) Mars

**ANSWER:**X) Saturn

##### 6) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

If the `cos A = 1/2` and terminates in Quadrant I of the Cartesian coordinate system, in a unit circle find `sin A`:

W) `sqrt(3) / ( 2*sqrt(2) )`

X) `2 / sqrt(3)`

Y) `sqrt(3) / 2`

Z) `2 * sqrt(3)`

**ANSWER:**Y) `sqrt(3) / 2`

##### 6) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

In statistics, what is the square root of the variance most commonly known as?

**ANSWER:**Standard Deviation

##### 7) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the G protein hormone receptor system?

W) It is an example of membrane-based signal transduction

X) It results in an amplification of the original signal

Y) The hormone is a ligand for the G protein

Z) The G protein must be able to move along the membrane

**ANSWER:**Y) THE HORMONE IS A LIGAND FOR THE G PROTEIN

##### 7) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Some disease-causing microbes attack the body by turning on or off specific signal transduction pathways. In the disease cholera, for example, a toxin from the bacterium Vibr^io cholera enters intestinal cells and chemically modifies G proteins. Once modified, the G proteins can no longer cleave GTP into GDP. Which of the following would you expect to see within the intestinal cells of a person with cholera?

W) The G proteins remain activated and continually activate adenylyl cylase

X) The G proteins cannot become activated and cannot activate adenylyl cylase

Y) The G protein subunits do not separate from each other

Z) The receptor in the membrane is continually activated

**ANSWER:**W) THE G PROTEINS REMAIN ACTIVATED AND CONTINUALLY ACTIVATE ADENYLYL CYLASE

##### 8) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Unknown to be algebraic or transcendental

W) Rational

X) Algebraic irrational

Y) Transcendental

Z) Impossible to tell

**ANSWER:**Y

##### 8) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Let f(x) = axA7 + bxA3 + cx - 5 , where a,b, and c are real numbers. What is the value of f(7) if f(-7) = 8?

**ANSWER:**-18

##### 9) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the next number in the arithmetic sequence that has first three terms of 17, 31, and 45?

**ANSWER:**59

##### 9) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

A card is drawn at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. Given that the card drawn is a face card, what is the probability that the drawn card is a Jack?

**ANSWER:**1/3

##### 10) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the molecular formula for the conjugate base of the following Br0nsted-Lowry acid: HPO42-

**ANSWER:**PO43-

##### 10) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

To 2 decimal places, calculate how many moles of air are in a 4.0 liter tank at 1 atmosphere of pressure and at a temperature of 300K:

**ANSWER:**0.17 (ACCEPT: 0.16 MOLES) (Solution: n = PV/RT; = (1atm)(4L)/0.08L.atm/K.mol)(300K); = 0.166moles)

##### 11) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

This is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space-time, as well as all related concepts, including energy and force.

**ANSWER:**PHYSICS

##### 11) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

This is a device for measuring the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation. It consists of an absorptive element, such as a thin layer of metal, connected to a heat sink The result is that any radiation impinging on the absorptive element raises its temperature above that of the heat sink.

**ANSWER:**BOLOMETER

##### 12) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

How many quarks make up a neutron?

**ANSWER:**3

##### 12) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The most efficient transmission of sound is through

W) liquids.

X) solids.

Y) gases.

Z) vacuums.

**ANSWER:**X-- SOLIDS

##### 13) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

As the result of a collision with another particle, a charged particle ends up with its velocity vector completely parallel to a uniform magnetic field. Which of the following best describes the subsequent path of the particle?

W) A circular arc

X) A spiral

Y) A straight line

Z) A cycloid

**ANSWER:**Y) A STRAIGHT LINE

##### 13) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

An 80 kilogram person dives horizontally off a 100 kilogram rowboat. If the diver’s speed after leaving the rowboat is 5 meters per second, what is the speed in meters per second of the rowboat?

**ANSWER:**4

##### 14) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Evaluate the square root of the quantity 6 times 7 times 8 times 9 plus 1.

**ANSWER:**55

##### 14) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Given that `x < 5`, simplify `sqrt(x^2 - 10x + 25)` as much as possible.

**ANSWER:**`-x + 5`

##### 15) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Although known to the Chinese as early as the 11th century, what term, named after its 19th century discoverer, indicates the temperature at which ferro-magnets lose their magnetism?

**ANSWER:**CURIE POINT (ACCEPT: CURIE TEMPERATURE)

##### 15) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Order the following from the WORST electrical conductor to the BEST electrical conductor: pure water, aluminum, steel, dry wood

**ANSWER:**PURE WATER, DRY WOOD, STEEL, ALUMINUM

##### 16) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the difference in sound intensity level between a 100 W/m2 intensity and a 100,000 W/m2 intensity?

W) 20 dB

X) 30 dB

Y) 40 dB

Z) 50 dB

**ANSWER:**X) 30 DB

##### 16) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the speed of sound in air at sea level when it is 86 degrees Fahrenheit?

**ANSWER:**349 METERS PER SECOND

##### 17) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following particles are classified as baryons?

W) Weak boson

X) Graviton y) Neutrino

Z) Neutron

**ANSWER:**Z) NEUTRON

##### 17) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A food shipper pushes a wooden crate of lettuce with a total mass of 14 kilograms across a concrete floor with a constant horizontal force of magnitude 40 newtons. In a straight-line displacement of magnitude 0.50 meters, the speed of the crate decreases from 0.60 meters per second to 0.20 meters per second. How much work, in joules, is done by the horizontal force?

**ANSWER:**20

##### 18) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The equation of continuity for fluid flow can be derived from the conservation of:

W) Energy

X) Mass

Y) Angular momentum

Z) Volume

**ANSWER:**X) Mass

##### 18) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A coil has a resistance of 60Q and an impedance of 100Q. Its reactance, in ohms, is:

W) 40

X) 60

Y) 80

Z) 117

**ANSWER:**Y) 80

##### 19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A block moving at an initial speed v slides 10 meters. How far does a block with an initial speed of 3v slide?

W) 0

X) 10 meters

Y) 30 meters

Z) 90 meters

**ANSWER:**Z) 90 METERS

##### 19) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 1-kg hollow sphere is rolling without slipping at a speed of 10 meters per second. What is the sphere’s total kinetic energy?

**ANSWER:**500/6 JOULE

##### 20) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

If a computer has an 8-bit bus, how many bytes of information can travel at a time?

**ANSWER:**1

##### 20) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

A gigabyte is how many bytes:

W) 210

X) 220

Y) 230

Z) 240

**ANSWER:**Y) 230

##### 21) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Addition reactions in organic chemistry are characteristic of:

W) alkanes

X) aromatic compounds

Y) alkenes

Z) ketones

**ANSWER:**Y) ALKENES

##### 21) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Calculate the heat energy, in Joules, released when 10 grams of a substance, which has the same specific heat as liquid water, cools from 100°C to 50°C:

**ANSWER:**2090 (ACCEPT: + or - 2000 to 2100 J) (Solution: heat released = (mass)(AT)(4.18 J/gm°C); = (10g)(50°C)(4.18J/g°C) = 2090 J)

##### 22) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

When an insulating material is placed between the plates of a capacitor, the capacitance increases. What is the name for the factor by which the capacitance increases?

**ANSWER:**DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

##### 22) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The area under the velocity-time curve between two time intervals

W) is the displacement

X) is the velocity

Y) is the acceleration

Z) has no physical significance

**ANSWER:**W) IS THE DISPLACEMENT

##### 23) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Tiny openings in the insect body through which air enters are called:

W) protopodites

X) stomata

Y) spinnerets

Z) spiracles

**ANSWER:**Z) SPIRACLES

##### 23) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following mechanisms is the most common method for lowering the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft:

W) enzymatic degradation

X) re-uptake into the pre-synaptic terminal

Y) re-uptake into the post-synaptic terminal

Z) degradation by trypsin released into the synaptic cleft

**ANSWER:**X) RE-UPTAKE INTO THE PRE-SYNAPTIC TERMINAL

##### 24) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What silicate mineral with an orthorhombic crystal system defines the hardness of 8 on the Mohs hardness scale?

**ANSWER:**TOPAZ

##### 24) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the Chandrasekhar Limit to the closest tenth?

**ANSWER:**1.4

##### 25) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following substances would be the best choice to neutralize aqueous Sodium Hydroxide?

W) sodium carbonate

X) silicon dioxide

Y) aluminum oxide

Z) phosphorus pentoxide

**ANSWER:**Z) phosphorus pentoxide

##### 25) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Hydrogen gas effuses through a pinhole opening from one compartment to another about how many times as fast as nitrogen gas:

W) 2.4-times

X) 3.7-times

Y) 5.3-times

Z) 8.2-times

**ANSWER:**X) 3.7-times