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1) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Fill in the blank: Mercury has around _______ percent of Earth's mass.
W) 5
X) 25
Y) 50
Z) 75

ANSWER: W) 5
1) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Name the layer of the Sun's atmosphere that breaks up into jets called spicules at its outer limit.

ANSWER: Chromosphere
2) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In general, as you move across a period (left to right) electronegativity:
W) increases
X) decreases
Y) remains the same
Z) increases or decreases

ANSWER: W) increases
2) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The 1936 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Peter J.W.Debye for his studies of:
W) kinetic energy of colliding particles
X) electron configuration
Y) dipole moments
Z) conformations of cyclohexane

ANSWER: Y) dipole moments
3) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Fluorine-18, a radioactive isotope used as a tracer in PET scans, decays through
W) beta minus decay
X) beta plus decay
Y) alpha decay
Z) random fissioning

ANSWER: X) BETA PLUS DECAY
3) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A particle has mass 1 kg. To within two orders of magnitude, what is its Compton wavelength?

ANSWER: 10^-42 METER
4) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

How many different structures can Formic Acid (HC02H) form?

ANSWER: Two (2)
4) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the pH of a Ca(OH)2 solution with Calcium(2+) concentration of 5.0 x 10A-6?

ANSWER: 9.00 (Accept: Nine)
5) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Subtract the following complex numbers, giving your answer in standard form: (11 - 4i) - (-3 + 3i)

ANSWER: 14 - 7i
5) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Solve the following inequality for x, giving your answer in fractional form: `1/3 x + 2/3 < 5/6 x - 2`

ANSWER: `x > 16/3` (ACCEPT: `x > 5 1/3`)
6) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

The reciprocal of the square root of the quantity mu naught times epsilon naught, where mu naught and epsilon naught are the permeability and permittivity of free space, respectively, is equal to:

ANSWER: THE SPEED OF LIGHT (ACCEPT C OR 3 * 10^8 M/S)
6) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

An observer is on a train moving west at nearly the speed of light with respect to the ground. Another observer, standing on the ground outside the train, sees two lightning bolts strike both ends of the train simultaneously. From the perspective of the man on the train, which of the following appears to be true?
W) no lightning bolt struck the east end of the train
X) the lightning bolt on the west end of the train struck first
Y) the lightning bolt on the east end of the train struck first
Z) the two lightning bolts struck simultaneously

ANSWER: X) THE LIGHTNING BOLT ON THE WEST END OF THE TRAIN STRUCK FIRST
7) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If `f(x, y) = xy + 3xy^2` (read as: f of x, y equals xy plus 3xy squared), what is the partial derivative of f with respect to y?

ANSWER: `x + 6xy`
7) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Approximate the area under `f(x) = x^2 + 1` from x = 0 to x = 8 using a mid-point Riemann sum with four equal subintervals.

ANSWER: 176
8) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What term is defined as the ratio of the angle subtended by an image through a lens to the angle subtended with the unaided eye, considering that the object is at the near-point of the eye:

ANSWER: ANGULAR MAGNIFICATION (ACCEPT: MAGNIFYING POWER)
8) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Order the following 4 materials from those with the lowest density to the highest density: iron, iridium, copper, tin

ANSWER: TIN, IRON, COPPER, IRIDIUM
9) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the empirical formula for the following: C18H33N6O3

ANSWER: C6h11n2o
9) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What general term describes a substance whose electrons are all spin-paired and that are weakly repelled by magnetic fields?

ANSWER: Diamagnetic
10) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What does the acronym DBMS mean?

ANSWER: DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
10) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

What organization, formed in 1993, is charged with registering domain names and IP addresses as well as distributing information about the Internet?

ANSWER: INTERNIC OR INTERNET NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER
11) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the term used to describe the scattering of parts of the same disk file over different areas of the disk causing slow disk access and performance degradation?

ANSWER: FRAGMENTATION
11) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

What does the acronym ISDN stand for?

ANSWER: INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL DOMAIN
12) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using a dielectric in a capacitor?
W) the capacitance can be increased
X) the maximum operating voltage can be increased
Y) the dielectric can provide mechanical support between conducting plates
Z) dielectrics can completely prevent electical breakdown in a capacitor

ANSWER: Z) DIELECTRICS CAN COMPLETELY PREVENT ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN IN A CAPACITOR
12) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

This type of electrical circuit, containing very large capacitors, was first described in 1924 by the scientist after whom it was named. Its purpose is to generate a very high voltage pulse.
W) Marx generator
X) Wheatstone bridge
Y) Faraday generator
Z) Pockels cell

ANSWER: W) MARX GENERATOR
13) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Eukaryotic [yoo-KAR-ee-oh-tik] genes are composed of introns and exons. Which of the following eukaryotes [yoo-KAR-ee-ohts] would have the shortest intron size?
W) Mice
X) Fruit flies
Y) Humans
Z) Yeast

ANSWER: Z) YEAST
13) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

In the production of mammalian proteins, the first amino acid in the polypeptide sequence is almost always the same amino acid. What is this amino acid that is prevalent in almost all proteins?

ANSWER: METHIONINE (ACCEPT: MET AND M)
14) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Give the EMPIRICAL formula for the organic compound cyclopentene.

ANSWER: c5h8
14) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The conjugate acid of water is:
W) OH
X) H2
Y) O2
Z) H3O+

ANSWER: Z) H3O+
15) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

Black water fever is a complication of malarial infection. The term black water comes from what oxidized product in the urine of infected individuals?

ANSWER: HEMOGLOBIN (ACCEPT: MET-HEMOGLOBIN)
15) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Name all of the following 4 human blood cells that are considered lymphocytes: helper T cells; CD8 cells; CD4 cells; plasma cells

ANSWER: HELPER T CELLS; CD8 CELLS; CD4 CELLS; PLASMA CELLS (ACCEPT: ALL)
16) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What genus of bacteria uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants?

ANSWER: AGROBACTERIUM
16) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

An F1 individual is heterozygous for each of 4 traits, A, B, C, and D, and is allowed to self-fertilize. What is the probability that the offspring will be AaBBccDd?

ANSWER: 1/64
17) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a terminal moraine that resulted at the climax of the Wisconsin ice sheet:
W) Long Island, New York
X) the northern Bahamas Islands
Y) Death Valley, California
Z) Hudson Bay, Canada

ANSWER: W) LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK
17) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Looking down on the Earth in the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following BEST describes the circulation of air above an anticyclone:
W) air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise direction
X) air spiraling outward in a counter-clockwise direction
Y) air spiraling inward in a clockwise direction
Z) air spiraling outward in a clockwise direction

ANSWER: Z) AIR SPIRALING OUTWARD IN A CLOCKWISE DIRECTION
18) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following diode would you want to use if you want as small a forward voltage drop as possible?
W) Zener diode
X) Avalanche diode
Y) Schottky diode
Z) Varicap diode

ANSWER: Y) SCHOTTKY DIODE
18) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 5 volt power supply is being used to provide current to an LED. If the LED is designed to operate at a voltage drop of 0.7 volts and a current of 10 milliamps and the power supply has no internal resistance, what strength resistor should be placed in series with the LED?

ANSWER: 430 OHM
19) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

Tripling the distance to a star will typically reduce its apparent brightness by about how many times?

ANSWER: 9
19) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Assuming that the Hubble constant = 40 km/sec/megaparsec, how far away, in megaparsecs, is a galaxy whose red shift is 20,000 km/sec?

ANSWER: 500 MEGAPARSECS (Solution: d = v/H0; = 20,000/40 = 500)
20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

An increase in which of the following conditions would NOT lead to an increase in pressure of a gas in a piston:
W) increased temperature
X) increased number of gas molecules
Y) increased average kinetic energy of gas particles
Z) increased volume

ANSWER: Z) INCREASED VOLUME
20) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

To the nearest whole number, how many grams of Na2SO4, whose formula weight is 142, are needed to prepare a 500 milliliter 0.100 molar solution?

ANSWER: 7 (Solution: (0.5L)(0.1 mol/L) = 0.05 mol (142 g/mol) = 7.1 g)
21) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A convex mirror produces an image that is
W) erect, larger, and real
X) erect, smaller, and virtual
Y) inverted, smaller, and real
Z) inverted, larger, and virtual

ANSWER: X) ERECT, SMALLER, AND VIRTUAL
21) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

An object is placed 100 centimeters in front of a concave mirror with center of curvature 40 centimeters away. How far away from the mirror is the image formed?

ANSWER: 25 CM
22) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Excess secretion from this gland can cause a person to be thin, hyperactive, always hungry, & irritable.
W) adrenal cortex
X) thyroid
Y) anterior pituitary
Z) adrenal medulla

ANSWER: X) thyroid
22) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Protein synthesis occurs in cells on the:

ANSWER: endoplasmic reticulum
23) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

A narrative that describes the logic and processing flow of a program is called
W) a hierarchy chart.
X) a flowchart.
Y) pseudocode.
Z) CASE (spell out).

ANSWER: Y-- PSEUDOCODE
23) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

The 1994 Draper Prize for Engineering, worth $375,000, was given for the development of FORTRAN. Name the recipient.

ANSWER: (JOHN) BACKUS
24) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

What does it mean when a wind generator has a cut-in speed of 3 meters per second?
W) It won't produce any power unless the wind speed is lower than 3 meters per second
X) It will stop producing power at 3 meters per second to protect itself from breaking
Y) It will produce the maximum power at 3 meters per second
Z) It won't produce any power unless the wind speed is higher than 3 meters per second

ANSWER: Z) IT WON'T PRODUCE ANY POWER UNLESS THE WIND SPEED IS HIGHER THAN 3 METERS PER SECOND
24) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

Nuclides, such as U-235 and Pu-239, are often used as fuel in light water nuclear reactors. These isotopes are considered both fissile and fissionable because they are capable of undergoing fission after capturing what type of neutrons?

ANSWER: THERMAL (ACCEPT: SLOW)
25) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

All of the following processes release carbon dioxide EXCEPT:
W) the Kreb's cycle
X) alcohol fermentation
Y) oxidative phosphorylation
Z) the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

ANSWER: Y) oxidative phosphorylation
25) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

All of the following processes produce ATP EXCEPT:
W) glycolysis
X) the Kreb's cycle
Y) lactic acid fermentation
Z) oxidative phosphorylation of NADH

ANSWER: Y) lactic acid fermentation