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1) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following igneous rocks is felsic?
W) Rhyolite
X) Diorite
Y) Gabbro
Z) Komatite

ANSWER: W) Rhyolite
1) Bonus - Earth Science - Short answer

Besides calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar, what is a dominant mineral that helps compose mafic igneous rocks?

ANSWER: Pyroxene
2) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius is defined as its

ANSWER: HEAT CAPACITY (ACCEPT: SPECIFIC HEAT)
2) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The orientation in space of an atomic orbital is associated with
W) the principal quantum number
X) the magnetic quantum number
Y) the spin quantum number
Z) the angular momentum quantum number

ANSWER: X) THE MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER
3) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What are the two types of elementary fermions?

ANSWER: QUARKS AND LEPTONS
3) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What are the two second-generation leptons (not including antiparticles)?

ANSWER: MUONS AND MUON NEUTRINOS
4) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the most common scientific name for the form of radiation that is emitted when relativistic electrons are forced to travel through a curved trajectory in a magnetic field?

ANSWER: SYNCHROTRON RADIATION
4) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

The Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Lab is the home of the RHIC, which is world’s highest energy particle collider. What do the letters R, H, I, and C each respectively stand for?

ANSWER: RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER
5) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following sets of constellations would be found nearest the ecliptic to an observer in mid-northern latitudes:
W) Leo, Virgo, and Scorpius
X) Pisces, Aries, and Draco
Y) Cancer, Gemini, and Cassiopeia
Z) Taurus, Ursa Minor, and Pisces

ANSWER: W) Leo, Virgo, and Scorpius
5) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Name all of the following 4 objects that would NOT be found on Earth: meteors; craters; asteroid impact remnants; bolides

ANSWER: Meteors; bolides
6) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following properties is generally characteristic of metals?
W) High heat conductivity
X) Low electrical conductivity
Y) High first ionization energies
Z) Tendency to form negative ions

ANSWER: W) HIGH HEAT CONDUCTIVITY
6) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What separation technique would effectively separate a 50:50 mixture of ethanol and water?

ANSWER: FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION (ACCEPT: DISTILLATION)
7) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What two Nobel laureates, while working at Berkeley California, are often credited with co-discovering more elements than any other scientists?

ANSWER: GLENN SEABORG AND ALBERT GHIORSO (ACCEPT: SEABORG AND GHIORSO)
7) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the average acceleration of a golf ball struck from rest and reaching a maximum speed of 80 meters per second at a displacement of 3 meters from the point of contact:
W) 13 m/sec2
X) 530 m/sec2
Y)1066 m/sec2
Z) 2020 m/sec2

ANSWER: Y) 1066 M/SEC2
8) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the only regular polyhedron that will completely fill space?

ANSWER: CUBE (ACCEPT: HEXAHEDRON)
8) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Of 1000 computer owners surveyed, it was found that 800 people owned a computer with a built-in CD drive, 230 owned one with a built-in DVD drive, and 100 owned a computer with both CD and DVD drives. How many people do not own a computer with a CD OR DVD-drive?

ANSWER: 70
9) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

In hydrostatic equilibrium [ee-kwuh-LIB-ree-uhm], which two forces are balanced against each other?

ANSWER: PRESSURE AND GRAVITY
9) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Estuaries off the coast of which of the following states demonstrate the greatest nutrient pollution?
W) Louisiana
X) Oregon
Y) Maine z) Texas

ANSWER: W) LOUISIANA
10) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If a person walks 4 miles due north, 6 miles due east, then 4 miles due north, how far in miles is the person displaced from his or her original position?

ANSWER: 10
10) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

In a standard deck of cards with no jokers, providing your answer as a fraction in lowest terms, what is the probability of picking a card that is black or a number less than 10 (which includes aces)?

ANSWER: 11/13
11) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Of the nine known planets in our solar system, the innermost is Mercury. When compared to the other planets in the system, Mercury has the:
W) greatest centripetal acceleration
X) greatest period of revolution
Y) smallest angular velocity
Z) smallest tangential velocity

ANSWER: W) GREATEST CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
11) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The maximum value for the displacement of a harmonic oscillator is called the
W) frequency
X) period
Y) wavelength
Z) amplitude

ANSWER: Z) AMPLITUDE
12) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following, when added to hydrofluoric acid, would decrease its acidity?
W) sodium fluoride
X) ammonium nitrate
Y) acetic acid
Z) sodium nitrate

ANSWER: W
12) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the name of the type of relatively unstable bonding found in many electron deficient compounds, such as BeH2?

ANSWER: three center bond
13) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not generally true for both gases and plasmas?
W) Electrically neutral
X) No definitive shape
Y) High resistance
Z) Separated molecules

ANSWER: Y) HIGH RESISTANCE
13) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the approximate conductivity of ionized oxygen?
W) 0
X) `2 * 10^-3` Siemens
Y) `2 * 10^-8` Siemens
Z) Infinite

ANSWER: Z) INFINITE
14) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the term for the concept that energy can exist only in discrete increments, such as photons?

ANSWER: QUANTIZATION (ACCEPT QUANTUM THEORY)
14) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the Greek letter most often associated with wave functions?

ANSWER: PSI
15) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

The use and transfer of energy in cells involves the same compound, ATP. The letters ATP stand for the chemical:
W) atrophine trichloride
X) aluminum trioxide
Y) adenosine triphosphate
Z) none of the above

ANSWER: Y) adenosine triphosphate
15) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Myelin sheaths are found:
W) surrounding tendons
X) covering the brain
Y) covering muscles
Z) around axons of neurons

ANSWER: Z) around axons of neurons
16) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the most accurate? The center of mass of the system consisting of Earth, the Sun, and the planet Mars is:
W) closer to the Sun than to either of the other bodies
X) closer to Earth than to either of the other bodies
Y) at the geometric center of the triangle formed by the three bodies
Z) at the center of the line joining Earth and Mars

ANSWER: ) closer to the Sun than to either of the other bodies
16) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

At the same instant that a 0.50-kg ball is dropped from 25m above Earth, a second ball, with a mass of 0.25 kg, is thrown straight upward from Earth’s surface with an initial speed of 15m/s. They move along nearby lines and pass each other without colliding. At the end of 2.0 s the height above Earth’s surface of the center of mass of the two-ball system is:
W) 3.0m
X) 5.0m
Y) 6.5m
Z) 7.1m

ANSWER: Z) 7.1m
17) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

An isotonic solution of sodium chloride, also known as normal saline, is what percent by mass:
W) 0.045%
X) 0.9%
Y) 2.5%
Z) 10%

ANSWER: X) 0.9%
17) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following BEST describes the size of a typical animal virus:
W) 600 micrometers
X) 100 nanometers
Y) 1 nanometer
Z) 1 angstrom

ANSWER: X) 100 NANOMETERS
18) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

The majority of moth species forage for food energy during what stage of their life cycle?
W) Egg
X) Larva
Y) Pupa
Z) Adult

ANSWER: X) LARVA
18) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

The electrical resistance of a semiconducting wire is least likely to be reduced by a decrease in which two of the following four wire characteristics? (1) melting point, (2) radius, (3) length, (4) temperature

ANSWER: 1 and 2 (ACCEPT: MELTING POINT AND RADIUS)
19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The center of mass of a rigid body is best described as:
W) the point at which all mass is concentrated
X) the point that is the average of all points in the body
Y) a point which can be considered to be equivalent to the body for purposes of rotational motion
Z) the weighted average of all points in the body, where the weights are the masses of each point

ANSWER: Z) the weighted average of all points in the body, where the weights are the masses of each point
19) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Three points are arranged in an equilateral triangle with side length s. One of the points has mass m, and the other two have mass 2m. In terms of s and in exact form, what is the distance between the centroid and center of mass of the triangle?

ANSWER: s√3/15
20) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following most directly addresses that a gas of low density, when excited, will emit light of a certain wavelength:
W) Kirchhoff’s second law
X) Bode’s second law
Y) Wien’s law
Z) Balmer’s law

ANSWER: W) Kirchhoff’s second law
20) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The andromeda Galaxy is which of the following types of galaxies?
W) elliptical
X) spiral
Y) barred-spiral
Z) irregular

ANSWER: X) spiral
21) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the primary calcium-binding protein in eukaryotic cells, that is about 148 amino acids long, and has a wide variety of functions often through kinases andphosphatases (read as: foss-fah-TAY-sis)?

ANSWER: Calmodulin
21) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Give the genus and species name for the first bacterium shown to be the cause of a disease:

ANSWER: Bacillus Anthracis
22) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

In the equation g(x) = the integral of f(x)dx, the integrand is
W) g(x).
X) dx.
Y) f(x).
Z) undefined.

ANSWER: Y-- F (X)
22) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Approximating the value of an integral by the sum of area of rectangles is called what kind of sum?

ANSWER: RIEMANN (SUM)
23) Toss Up - Earth Science - Short Answer

What is the third most common gas naturally found in the Earth’s clean, dry atmosphere?

ANSWER: ARGON
23) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

The Earth’s greenhouse effect is primarily caused by which of the following:
W) incoming solar ultraviolet light is absorbed by the ozone layer
X) outgoing infrared solar radiation is trapped by the lower atmosphere
Y) incoming infrared solar radiation is trapped by the magnetic field
Z) outgoing X-rays are absorbed by the troposphere and reflected to the Earth’s surface

ANSWER: X) OUTGOING INFRARED SOLAR RADIATION IS TRAPPED BY THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE
24) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Applying Bernoulli's principle to vortices, where in a vortex should the pressure be highest?

ANSWER: CENTER (ACCEPT: MIDDLE)
24) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Providing your answer as a decimal rounded to the nearest tenth, if a normal force of 1 newton is applied to the end of a fixed cylinder with a radius of 1 meter, what pressure, in pascals, is induced in the cylinder?

ANSWER: 0.3
25) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple choice

Von Willenbrands causes symptoms similar to which of the following conditions?
W) AIDS
X) Hemophilia
Y) Downs Syndrome
Z) Cancer

ANSWER: X) Hemophilia
25) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the name of the RNA based compound which is currently being researched for use in Gene technology and alteration?

ANSWER: CRISPR/ Cas9, either is acceptable