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1) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Multiply the following complex numbers, giving your answer in standard form: `(2 + isqrt(2) )(3 - isqrt(2))`

ANSWER: `8 + sqrt(2) i` (accept: `8 + isqrt(2)` )
1) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Simplify the following expression by combining like terms: `12.03A - 4.03B - 0.03(A - 40)`

ANSWER: `12a - 4.03b + 1.2`
2) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Factor the following expression: `49x^2 - 169y^4`

ANSWER: `(7x + 13y^2)(7x - 13y^2)`
2) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

If $1000 is placed in a savings account that pays 6% annual interest compounded semiannually, what is the total amount of money in the account at the end of 1 year, to the nearest dollar?

ANSWER: $1061.00 (Solution: `A = P[1 + (r/n)]^(nt); = $1,000[1 + (0.06/2)]^(2x1) = $1060.90`)
3) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

What element makes up the innermost core of a type II (read as: type 2) supernova just before core collapse?

ANSWER: IRON
3) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the magnification of a telescope with an objective lens that has a focal length of 250 centimeters and an eyepiece with a focal length of 0.50 centimeters?

ANSWER: 500X (ACCEPT: 500 or 500 TIMES) (Solution: M = Fo - Fe = 250/0.50 = 500)
4) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the charge of a Z boson, in multiples of the elementary charge?
W) 0
X) 1
Y) -1
Z) 2

ANSWER: W) 0
4) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the antiparticle of the Z boson?

ANSWER: Z BOSON (OR ITSELF)
5) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Schwann's cell theory basically states that:
W) cells are the building blocks of living things
X) cells require oxygen
Y) cells are made of atoms and molecules
Z) cells require nutrients

ANSWER: W) cells are the building blocks of living things
5) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments are integral components of what basic infrastructure of a eukaryotic cell?
W) flagella
X) cillia
Y) cytoskeleton
Z) cell wall

ANSWER: Y) cytoskeleton
6) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following machines would most likely be used to produce radioisotopes for PET scans?
W) Van der Graff Gen
X) Cyclotron
Y) Nuclear reactor
Z) Cloud Chamber

ANSWER: X) CYCLOTRON
6) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

The development of anode rays, also known as canal rays, led to the development of what scientific instrument?

ANSWER: MASS SPECTROMETER
7) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the name for the process by which the percentage of uranium-235 in uranium ore is increased?

ANSWER: ENRICHMENT
7) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

One awesome method of separating U-235 from U-238 relies upon the differences in electron energy levels. A laser, tuned to just the energy level for U-235, ionizes these atoms which are then collected in a process called AVLIS. AVLIS is an acronym for what?

ANSWER: ATOMIC VAPOR LASER ISOTOPE SEPARATION
8) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following tissues is MOST directly responsible for the increased diameter of a tree trunk from year to year:
W) apical meristem
X) pericycle
Y) vascular cambium
Z) pith

ANSWER: Y) VASCULAR CAMBIUM
8) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Name all of the following 3 metabolic processes which directly require oxygen: glycolysis; alcohol fermentation; electron transport system

ANSWER: ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM
9) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Which two of the following 5 amino acids contain nonpolar R groups? valine, lysine, arginine, alanine, histidine

ANSWER: Valine, Alanine
9) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In addition to the "sniff test", which of the following is a standard laboratory test for a sulfide, such as hydrogen sulfide gas:
W) the gas passed over a filter paper soaked in colorless lead nitrate turns the paper brown
X) when inserted into a flame, a glowing wooden splint bursts into flames
Y) a flame test gives off a deep purple color
Z) paper chromatography

ANSWER: W) the gas passed over a filter paper soaked in colorless lead nitrate turns the paper brown
10) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an example of a chelating (pronounced: KEE-lay-ting) agent:
W) EDTA
X) hemoglobin
Y) chlorophyll
Z) lead

ANSWER: Z) LEAD
10) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the name of the tarnish resistant alloy of tin and lead which can be hardened by antimony and copper?

ANSWER: PEWTER
11) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

In what part of photosynthesis, named after its discoverers, is NADPH used to produce 3-carbon sugar phosphate molecules?

ANSWER: CALVIN CYCLE (ACCEPT: CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE or CALVIN-BENSON-BASSHAM CYCLE)
11) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

For every carbon dioxide molecule fixed in the Calvin-Benson cycle, how many NADPH molecules are utilized?

ANSWER: 2
12) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following factors does NOT affect the solubility of a solid in a liquid?
W) Temperature
X) Polarity of solute
Y) Polarity of solvent
Z) Pressure

ANSWER: Z) PRESSURE
12) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following period 3 elements has the smallest atomic radius?
W) Sodium
X) Phosphorus
Y) Chlorine
Z) Aluminum

ANSWER: Y) CHLORINE
13) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Convert `(2pi)/3` radians into degrees:

ANSWER: 120°
13) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Multiply and simplify the following polynomial expression: `(-2a^2b^3 + 5c)(2a^2b^3 + 5c)`

ANSWER: `25c^2 - 4a^4b^6`
14) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Ultraviolet photons are released in light that is
W) incandescent.
X) fluorescent.
Y) luminous.
Z) neon.

ANSWER: X-- FLUORESCENT
14) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The item not associated with fluorescent light is
W) a tungsten filament.
X) a phosphor.
Y) an ultraviolet photon.
Z) a mercury vapor atom.

ANSWER: W-- A TUNGSTEN FILAMENT
15) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The final phase of a star=92s evolution is determined by the star=92s
W) Age
X) Gravitational pull
Y) Density
Z) Mass

ANSWER: Z) Mass
15) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

the rosette nebula, is sighted as to be within which constellation?
W) Monoceros
X) Hydra
Y) Orion
Z) Canis

ANSWER: W) Monoceros
16) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Determine the oxidation state of each of the elements in the polyatomic ion C2O42-.

ANSWER: CARBON = 3+; OXYGEN = 2-
16) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following 1.0 molar solutions will have the largest change in boiling point from that of pure water?
W) Sodium bromide
X) Magnesium iodide
Y) Sucrose
Z) Potassium phosphate

ANSWER: Z) POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE
17) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What are the MLT units of the energy density of an electric field?
W) ML/T
X) M^2L/T
Y) ML^2/T
Z) ML^2/T^2

ANSWER: Z) ML^2/T^2
17) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

An electron enters into a magnetic field and begins to experience helical motion before changing direction in another magnetic field pointing in a new direction. Let R be the radius of the first helix and Z be the radius of the second helix. Assuming the charge of the electron is e and its mass is m, what is the total power dissipated by the magnetic fields as the electron travels through them?

ANSWER: 0
18) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Granular, aphanitic and glassy are terms to describe what feature of an igneous rock?
W) Relief
X) Composition
Y) Texture
Z) Schistocity

ANSWER: Y-- TEXTURE
18) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

Shales deposited in lakes often exhibit summer and winter layers that differ in color and texture and can be counted much like growth rings in trees.
What are these layers called?

ANSWER: VARVES
19) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What neurotransmitter is deficient in Parkinson’s disease?

ANSWER: DOPAMINE
19) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the BEST reason why Parkinson’s disease cannot be treated by simply administering dopamine into the blood stream:
W) dopamine’s blood half-life is too short
X) dopamine will not cross the blood brain barrier
Y) dopamine is the precursor to the real effective transmitter in Parkinson’s disease
Z) it is not known why dopamine will not work if administered directly into the blood

ANSWER: X) DOPAMINE WILL NOT CROSS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER
20) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the moment of inertia around the center of a uniform disk of mass 5 Kg and a radius of 2 m
W) 20 Kg/m^2
X) 40 Kg/m^2
Y) 10 Kg/m^2
Z) 60 Kg/m^2

ANSWER: Y) 10 KG/M^2
20) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

How long will it take a 5 Kg ball thrown from the ground vertically upward at a speed of 10m/s to hit the ground?

ANSWER: 2
21) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following most accurately describes the dominant air mass over Nebraska in January?
W) Cold, dry, continental
X) Cold, humid, maritime
Y) Warm, dry, continental
Z) Cold, humid, aquatic

ANSWER: W) COLD, DRY, CONTINENTAL
21) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

By name or number, put the following four choices in chronological order from earliest to most recent: 1) occurrence of humans, 2) existence of Pangaea, 3) formation of the Great Lakes, 4) extinction of the dinosaurs.

ANSWER: EXISTENCE OF PANGAEA, EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS, OCCURRENCE OF HUMANS, FORMATION OF THE GREAT LAKES (ACCEPT: 2, 4, 1,3)
22) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Add the following rational expressions and give your answer in fully factored form: `x/(x+2) + 4x/(x-6)`

ANSWER: `x(5x+2) / (x-6)(x+2)`
22) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What are the coordinates of the vertex in the graph of the following equation: `y = 4x^2 + 8x - 5`

ANSWER: (-1, -9)
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The quantity "stress" expressed in terms of the fundamental quantities (mass, length, time) is equivalent to
W) MLT-1 (read as: M L T to the minus one power)
X) ML-1T-2 (read as: M L to the minus one power T to the minus two power)
Y) M2L-1T-3 (read as: M to the second L to the minus one power T to the minus three power)
Z) a dimensionless quantity

ANSWER: X) ML-1T-2 (read as: M L to the minus one power T to the minus two power)
23) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The quantity "strain" expressed in terms of the fundamental quantities (mass, length, time) is equivalent to:
W) MLT-1 (read as: M L T to the minus one power)
X) ML-1T-2 (read as: M L to the minus one power T to the minus two power)
Y) M2L-1T-3 (read as: M to the second L to the minus one power T to the minus three power)
Z) a dimensionless quantity

ANSWER: Z) A DIMENSIONLESS QUANTITY
24) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

When current runs through wire wrapped around an iron nail, the magnetic field inside the solenoid is larger than it normally would be without the iron because
W) iron is denser than air
X) iron conducts electricity
Y) iron is paramagnetic
Z) iron is ferromagnetic

ANSWER: Z) IRON IS FERROMAGNETIC
24) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

For a given solenoid, if the loop density is doubled and the current is halved, the resulting magnetic field inside is what factor of the original?
W) 1/2
X) 1
Y) 2
Z) 4

ANSWER: X
25) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the equation of a line that has a slope of 4 and a_y-intercept of 5?

ANSWER: y = 4x + 5
25) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Factor the following expression as completely as possible: `x^4 - 16`

ANSWER: `(x - 2)(x + 2)(x^2 + 4)`