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1) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The ultimate triumph of gravity is a
W) white dwarf
X) neutron star
Y) black hole
Z) black dwarf

ANSWER: Y) BLACK HOLE
1) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Radio waves have
W) high energy and long wavelength
X) low energy and long wavelength
Y) high energy and short wavelength
Z) low energy and short wavelength

ANSWER: X) LOW ENERGY AND LONG WAVELENGTH
2) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following exhibits the least resistivity at 20°C:
W) gold
X) tungsten
Y) iron
Z) copper

ANSWER: Z) COPPER
2) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

If a violin string is 0.5 meters long and has a mass of 3.0 grams, what tension, in Newtons, must be on the string to give a wave velocity of 14.14 meters per second?

ANSWER: 1.2 (Solution: V = ..; = m/l x v2 = T; (0.003/0.5)(200) = 1.2 newtons) /1
3) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Charles law is particularly useful in explaining which of the following:
W) dry air is more dense than humid air
X) CO2 escapes from a bottle of soda when opened
Y) the change in enthalpy when nitrogen and oxygen react to form nitrogen dioxide
Z) a hot-air balloon rises when the air in the balloon is heated

ANSWER: Z) a hot-air balloon rises when the air in the balloon is heated
3) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

An increase in which of the following conditions would NOT lead to an increase in pressure of a gas in a piston:
W) increased temperature
X) increased number of gas molecules
Y) increased average kinetic energy of gas particles
Z) increased volume

ANSWER: Z) increased volume
4) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is necessary for the evolution of pesticide resistance?
W) A population that is highly susceptible to the pesticide
X) An extremely lethal pesticide
Y) Genetic variation in susceptibility to the pesticide
Z) Heterogeneous [het-er-uh-JEE-nee-uhs] application of pesticide

ANSWER: Y) GENETIC VARIATION IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE PESTICIDE
4) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Order the following three human oxygen-binding proteins from highest to lowest affinity for oxygen: 1) fetal hemoglobin, 2) myoglobin [my-uh-GLOH-bin], 3) maternal hemoglobin.

ANSWER: 2, 1, 3 (ACCEPT: MYOGLOBIN, FETAL HEMOGLOBIN, MATERNAL HEMOGLOBIN)
5) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What makes Sirius the brightest star in the night sky?
W) apparent magnitude
X) parallax
Y) color
Z) absolute magnitude

ANSWER: W) apparent magnitude
5) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following has the greatest density?
W) the sun
X) Venus
Y) Mars
Z) Jupiter

ANSWER: X) Venus
6) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the BEST example of gravitational lensing:
W) the distortion of light by intervening galaxies
X) the diffraction of light by a large mass
Y) the obstruction of light by a large mass
Z) the chromatic aberration of an image by an unknown source of gravity

ANSWER: W) THE DISTORTION OF LIGHT BY INTERVENING GALAXIES
6) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

The largest structure discovered in the universe is a supercluster nicknamed:

ANSWER: THE GREAT WALL
7) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Two identically sized conducting spheres, A, with a charge of `+3.2 xx 10^-19` coulombs, and B, with a charge of `-6.4 xx 10^-19` coulombs, are allowed to touch. While they are touching, sphere A does which of the following?
W) Gains three protons
X) Loses three protons
Y) Gains three electrons
Z) Gains four electrons

ANSWER: Y) GAINS THREE ELECTRONS
7) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A car's starter motor draws a current of 100 amperes at 12.0 volts when starting the engine. The mechanical power required to turn the engine is 960 watts. At what rate, in watts, is energy from the battery converted to heat?

ANSWER: 240
8) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is an example of a secondary energy source?
W) Coal
X) Electricity
Y) Solar
Z) Nuclear

ANSWER: X) ELECTRICITY
8) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

A water heater uses 4 kilowatts of electricity for 8 hours. To the nearest cent, how much does it cost to operate if the cost of electricity in your area is 10 cents per kilowatt hour?

ANSWER: $3.20
9) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The Wigner effect deals with the effects on a material by what type of bombardment?
W) neutron
X) alpha particle
Y) gamma ray
Z) beta particle

ANSWER: W) NEUTRON
9) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

In any given fission of Uranium-235, what is the average number of free neutrons released?

ANSWER: 2.5
10) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

The Magellan clouds are actually what type of celestial body?

ANSWER: GALAXIES
10) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

If the temperature of a star increases from 10,000K to 30,000K, by what factor will the rate of energy radiated per second increase?

ANSWER: 81 (ACCEPT: 34)
11) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which one of the following minerals does NOT contain silica tetrahedrons?
W) quartz
X) muscovite
Y) halite
Z) orthoclase

ANSWER: Y) halite
11) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

If the air temperature is 0ºF and the wind speed is 10 miles per hour, which of the following is closest to the wind chill, in degrees Fahrenheit:
W) 10
X) 0
Y) -10
Z) -20

ANSWER: Z) -20
12) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

What percentage of the earth's total volcanic activity occurs under the ocean?
W) 30%
X) 45%
Y) 65%
Z) 90%

ANSWER: Z) 90%
12) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true about the Earth’s troposphere:
W) within the layer, temperature decreases with altitude
X) it is terminated by the tropopause
Y) it contains the jet stream
Z) within the layer, temperature increases with altitude

ANSWER: Z) WITHIN THE LAYER, TEMPERATURE INCREASES WITH ALTITUDE
13) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Incomplete division of a yolk-rich egg is known as:
W) holoblastic cleavage
X) meroblastic cleavage
Y) binary fission
Z) determinate cleavage

ANSWER: W) HOLOBLASTIC CLEAVAGE
13) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

In certain tissues, where nuclear division is NOT followed by cytokinesis, which of the following will occur:
W) meiotic disjunction
X) a syncytium (pronounced: SIN-sish-e-um) results
Y) chiasmata can form in abnormal numbers
Z) a diploid zygote is always formed

ANSWER: X) A SYNCYTIUM RESULTS
14) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What is the common name for a mammal that lays eggs?

ANSWER: PLATYPUS OR ECHIDNA (ALSO CALLED SPINY ANTEATER)
14) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Who is called the Father of the Nuclear Navy?
W) Edward Teller
X) Robert Oppenheimer
Y) Hyman Rickover
Z) Chester Nimitz

ANSWER: Y-- HYMAN RICKOVER
15) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

What percentage of the atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide? Is it approximately:
W) .03% (read: three-hundredths of a percent)
X) 1%
Y) 5%
Z) 7%

ANSWER: W) .03% (read: three-hundredths of a percent)
15) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

A species that grows exponentially for some time and then suddenly crashes is showing a
W) delayed logistic growth curve
X) boom and bust growth curve
Y) delayed exponential growth curve
Z) logistic growth curve

ANSWER: X) boom and bust growth curve
16) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The angular distance of a star east of the Prime Meridian is most commonly referred to as the star’s:
W) deviation
X) gnomon angle
Y) zenith point
Z) right ascension

ANSWER: Z) RIGHT ASCENSION
16) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

The nominal galactic center lies on the galactic plane in the direction of what constellation?

ANSWER: SAGITTARIUS (ACCEPT: THE ARCHER)
17) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What star has the greatest apparent magnitude

ANSWER: Sun
17) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which planet or planets rotate in retrograde?
W) Venus
X) Uranus
Y) Venus and Uranus
Z) Uranus and Jupiter

ANSWER: Y) Venus and Uranus
18) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Who proposed the three laws of motion that govern both everyday objects and celestial obejcts?

ANSWER: ISAAC NEWTON
18) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The thrust of a rocket is equal to:
W) the square root of the exhaust velocity
X) the exhaust velocity multiplied by the instantaneous change in mass per unit time
Y) the exhaust velocity divided by the instantaneous change in mass per unit time
Z) the exhaust velocity multiplied by the instantaneous change in momentum per unit time

ANSWER: X) THE EXHAUST VELOCITY MULTIPLIED BY THE INSTANTANEOUS CHANGE IN MASS PER UNIT TIME
19) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

When a sample of an element is vaporized in a flame, it releases energy in the form of
W) a continuous spectrum.
X) gamma rays.
Y) light of all wavelengths.
Z) light of only certain wavelengths.

ANSWER: Z-- LIGHT OF ONLY CERTAIN WAVELENGTHS
19) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A systematic variation in the properties of elements going down a group or across a period is called a
W) block characteristic.
X) periodic law.
Y) periodic trend.
Z) triad configuration.

ANSWER: Y-- PERIODIC TREND
20) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

By words or numbers, name all of the following 3 functions that meiosis accomplishes: 1) reducing the copies of alleles in the ovum and sperm 2) reducing the numbers of chromosomes in the ovum and sperm 3) increasing genetic diversity through chromosomal exchange events

ANSWER: ALL
20) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Which one of the basic 3 plant cell types has irregularly thickened cell walls, retains its cytoplasm, and functions in structural support?

ANSWER: COLLENCHYMA
21) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the general term for the class of particles that act as carriers of the fundamental forces of nature?

ANSWER: GAUGE BOSONS
21) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following terms refers to the changes that the act of observing causes in a system? It is often confused with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
W) observer effect
X) observation shift
Y) anthropic bias
Z) Schrodinger effect

ANSWER: W) OBSERVER EFFECT
22) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The velocities of linear mechanical waves depend only on:
W) the medium through which the waves travel
X) the intial force that creates the waves
Y) the amplitude of the waves
Z) the frequency of the waves

ANSWER: W) THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE WAVES TRAVEL
22) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A transverse wave is created when a pulse is sent down a stretched rope in which the tension is 50 N. If the rope's mass of 1 kg is distributed uniformly throughout its 0.5 meter length, what is the speed of the wave?

ANSWER: 5 METERS PER SECOND
23) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What famous psychologist’s theory of personality introduced the concepts of race memory and the collective unconscious?

ANSWER: CARL JUNG (ACCEPT: JUNG) (pronounced: Young)
23) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

What optical instrument is an essential tool used for a number of purposes in surveying, navigation, and meteorology:
W) wallastone prism
X) theodolite
Y) immerect
Z) two way parralax meter

ANSWER: X) THEODOLITE
24) Toss Up - Earth Science - Short Answer

What fast-growing seaweed is harvested for food, iodine, and potassium?

ANSWER: KELP
24) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

The first location to feel the effects of an earthquake would be nearby
W) a seismograph station
X) the shadow zone
Y) the epicenter
Z) the equator

ANSWER: Y) THE EPICENTER
25) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the irreducible representation for the atomic orbital s for a molecule with C2v symmetry?

ANSWER: a1
25) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

For 680 milligrams of tannic acid, which has a molar mass of 1700 grams per mole, dissolved in water, it takes 40.00 milliliters of 0.25 molar sodium hydroxide to titrate the solution to a pH of 13. Based on this data, how many acidic protons does tannic acid have?

ANSWER: 25