##### 1) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the maximum number of d orbitals in a principle energy level?

**ANSWER:**FIVE

##### 1) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

According to the uncertainty principle, if the position of a moving particle is known, what other quantity cannot be known?

**ANSWER:**MOMENTUM (ACCEPT: VELOCITY)

##### 2) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

The observation that the mean luminosity of more distant stars tends to be higher than the mean luminosity of nearby stars in a flux-limited sample is an example of which of the following kinds of bias?

W) Eddington

X) Selection

Y) Confirmation

Z) Hindsight

**ANSWER:**X) SELECTION

##### 2) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following features is NOT associated with subduction zone geology?

W) San Joaquin Valley, California

X) Accreted terrains of coastal California

Y) North Carolina barrier islands

Z) Cascade Mountains in Oregon and Washington

**ANSWER:**Y) NORTH CAROLINA BARRIER ISLANDS

##### 3) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Find the derivative of the following function: `f(x) = sin (ln x)`

**ANSWER:**`cos(ln x) /x`

##### 3) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Find every value of k such that the following equation has exactly one real number root: `16x^2 + kx + 9 = 0`

**ANSWER:**24 and -24

##### 4) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The scientist who discovered the law of conservation of matter was

**ANSWER:**LAVOISIER (pron: la-voy-zee-eh)

##### 4) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The experiment that revealed the charge of the electron involved
the use of

W) gold foil.

X) photographic film.

Y) oil droplets.

Z) cathode ray tubes.

**ANSWER:**Y-- OIL DROPLETS

##### 5) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The granulation pattern seen on the surface of the Sun results from

W) heating of the photosphere by solar flares

X) the differential rotation of the Sun

Y) convection of gas in the region under the photosphere

Z) strong magnetic fields cooling the gas in certain regions

**ANSWER:**Y) CONVECTION OF GAS IN THE REGION UNDER THE PHOTOSPHERE

##### 5) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What is a planetary nebula?

W) A type of young, medium mass star

X) A planet surrounded by a glowing shell of gas

Y) The disc of gas and dust surrounding a young star that will soon form a solar system

Z) The ejected envelope of a red giant surrounding a stellar core remnant

**ANSWER:**Z) THE EJECTED ENVELOPE OF A RED GIANT SUR

##### 6) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere called?

**ANSWER:**TROPOPAUSE

##### 6) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following stellar reactions releases the most energy?

W) Hydrogen to helium

X) Helium to oxygen

Y) Oxygen to silicon

Z) Silicon to iron

**ANSWER:**W) HYDROGEN TO HELIUM

##### 7) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What term BEST describes 2 angles with 90° as the sum of their measurements?

**ANSWER:**COMPLEMENTARY

##### 7) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Divide the following and give your answer in scientific notation: `(8 xx 10^7)/((4 xx 10^4)^(1/2))`

**ANSWER:**`4 xx 10^5`

##### 8) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

If `x^2 + y^2 = 5^2`, find `dy/dx` in terms of x and y in simplest form.

**ANSWER:**`-x/y`

##### 8) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

A rectangle has both a changing height and a changing width, but the height and width change so that the area of the rectangle is always 200 square feet. What is the rate of change of the width of the rectangle in feet per second when the height is 5 feet, if the height is decreasing at that moment at the rate of 0.5 feet per second?

**ANSWER:**4

##### 9) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the MAIN advantage of space-based telescopes over typical ground-based telescopes:

W) they are not affected by radiation

X) their mirrors can be any size because of zero gravity

Y) they are cheaper to maintain

Z) they experience no atmospheric distortion

**ANSWER:**Z) THEY EXPERIENCE NO ATMOSPHERIC DISTORTION

##### 9) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the BEST evidence that globular clusters are composed of mostly old stars:

W) most of their stars have a low metal content

X) most of their stars are population one stars

Y) most of the stars have a very high mass

Z) most of their stars are white dwarfs

**ANSWER:**W) MOST OF THEIR STARS HAVE A LOW METAL CONTENT

##### 10) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

For an RLC circuit, what type of diagram is used to graphically depict the inductive reactance, capacitive reactance, and resistance?

**ANSWER:**PHASOR DIAGRAM

##### 10) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

An RLC circuit contains a resistor of 200 ohms, an inductor of 4 millihenries, and a 10 microfarad capacitor . The circuit is driven by an alternating current with angular frequency 5000 Hz. Which of the following is true?

W) current leads voltage by 30°

X) current is in phase with voltage

Y) current lags voltage by 30°

Z) current lags voltage by 90°

**ANSWER:**X) CURRENT IS IN PHASE WITH VOLTAGE

##### 11) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

The lines `y = (a - 5)x + 5` [y equals open parentheses a minus 5 close parentheses x plus 5] and `y = -2x + 7` are perpendicular if a equals which of the following?

W) -2/9

X) 9/2

Y) 5

Z) 11/2

**ANSWER:**Z) 11/2

##### 11) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

For a function f(x), suppose that you know that f(-1) = -2 and that f(3) = 2. What would you need to know about f in order to invoke the Intermediate Value Theorem to conclude that there is at least one zero of f on [-1, 3] [the closed interval from negative 1 to 3]?

**ANSWER:**f IS CONTINUOUS ON [-1, 3] (ACCEPT: F IS CONTINOUS ON THE INTERVAL)

##### 12) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

If Venus is between the Earth and the Sun, what
configuration is it in:

W) inferior conjunction

X) superior conjunction

Y) quadrature

Z) inferior quadrature

**ANSWER:**W) INFERIOR CONJUNCTION

##### 12) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Near the end of its life, the Sun will do which of the following:

W) become a red giant and then evolve to a white dwarf

X) become a neutron star

Y) become a blue giant and evolve into a white dwarf

Z) become a brown dwarf

**ANSWER:**W) BECOME A RED GIANT AND THEN EVOLVE TO A WHITE DWARF

##### 13) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following gases will have the LOWEST freezing point:

W) hydrogen

X) water

Y) helium

Z) carbon dioxide

**ANSWER:**Y) helium

##### 13) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes the catalyst in the destruction of ozone by chlorofluorocarbons:

W) homogeneous

X) heterogeneous

Y) enzymatic

Z) autocatalytic

**ANSWER:**W) homogeneous

##### 14) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following organs of the body produces insulin?

W) liver

X) stomach

Y) pancreas

Z) small intestine

**ANSWER:**Y) pancreas

##### 14) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The clavicles are the bones commonly referred to as:

W) the shoulder blades

X) the shin bones

Y) the collar bones

Z) none of the above

**ANSWER:**Y) the collar bones

##### 15) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Find the inverse function for `f(x) = 2x + 5`.

**ANSWER:**`(x-5)/2` (read as: QUANTITY X - 5 DIVIDED BY 2)

##### 15) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

The 3rd century B. C. Greek Mathematician credited with the first axiomatic treatment of geometry was

**ANSWER:**EUCLID (PRONOUNCED: YOU' - CLID)

##### 16) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following MOST directly determines the permittivity of a material:

W) ability of the material to magnetize

X) electrical susceptibility

Y) electrical insulation capacity

Z) electrical conductivity

**ANSWER:**X) ELECTRICAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

##### 16) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What are the SI units for permittivity?

**ANSWER:**FARADS PER METER

##### 17) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

What would a graph of the equation `f(x) = |x|` (read as: f of x equals the absolute value of x) look like?

W) it would be shaped like the letter V

X) it would have a sigmoid shape

Y) it would have a parabolic shape

Z) it would have a sine wave shape

**ANSWER:**W) IT WOULD BE SHAPED LIKE THE LETTER V

##### 17) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Six factorial equals what number?

**ANSWER:**720

##### 18) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the term for hardware and software systems that act as interfaces between networks having entirely different protocols?

**ANSWER:**GATEWAYS

##### 18) Bonus - Computer Science - Short Answer

What is the term in computer graphics that describes the process of enlarging or reducing a graphical image?

**ANSWER:**SCALING

##### 19) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What is the approximate age of our sun?

W) 1 billion years

X) 2 billion years

Y) 5 billion years

Z) 20 billion years

**ANSWER:**Y) 5 billion years

##### 19) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following objects is most likely to have a very large redshift?

W) neutron star

X) nova

Y) quasar

Z) supernova

**ANSWER:**Y) quasar

##### 20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Under constant temperature conditions, a sample of gas has a volume of 8 liters at a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres. If a 2 liter container is used to hold the gas,calculate the new pressure, in atmospheres:

**ANSWER:**6

##### 20) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

In a titration experiment, it takes 20.0 milliliters of a 0.05 molar barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2, solution to neutralize 40 milliliters of a nitric acid, or HNO3, solution tothe equivalence point. Calculate the molarity of HNO3, rounded to the second decimal place:

**ANSWER:**0.05

##### 21) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Melatonin (pron: mel-eh-toe-nin) is produced by the:

W) skin

X) pineal gland

Y) liver

Z) pituitary gland

**ANSWER:**X) pineal gland

##### 21) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which two of the following four bases in DNA are purine bases?

W) adenine

X) thymine

Y) cytosine

Z) guanine

**ANSWER:**W) adenine

##### 22) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What process produces a star's energy?

W) hydrogen and oxygen combustion

X) nuclear fusion

Y) neutron beta decay

Z) nuclear fission

**ANSWER:**X) nuclear fusion

##### 22) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The Giotto spacecraft set a new record last July for the closest visit yet to:

W) the core of a comet

X) the red spot of Jupiter

Y) an active solar flare

Z) the rings of Saturn

**ANSWER:**W) the core of a comet

##### 23) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Billy drops his teddy bear out of the car window 2 meters from the ground while his father is driving down Main Street at 20 meters per second. In seconds to the first decimal place, how long does it take for the bear to hit the ground, assuming air resistance is neglected?

**ANSWER:**0.6

##### 23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Using your rounded answer to the above question and remembering that the father is driving down Main Street at 20 meters per second, how far will the bear travel horizontally before striking the ground, rounded to the nearest whole meter and again assuming air resistance is neglected?

**ANSWER:**12

##### 24) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following molecules is an alkane?

W) C4H8

X) C3H8

Y) C2H2

Z) C2H5OH

**ANSWER:**X) C3H8

##### 24) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Of the following five solutions, name all that are nonelectrolytic: 1) acetone; 2) glucose; 3) acetic acid; 4) nitric acid; 5) ammonia.

**ANSWER:**1, 2 (ACCEPT: ACETONE, GLUCOSE)

##### 25) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Which growing field of modern magnetism combines waves and magnetism to investigate the behavior of psin waves?

**ANSWER:**MAGNONICS

##### 25) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What devices use high-amplitude sound wave sto pump heat from one place to another?

**ANSWER:**THERMOACOUSTIC HEAT ENGINE