##### 1) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

Which of the terrestrial planets has the lowest albedo?

**ANSWER:**Mercury

##### 1) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What are probably the only particles emitted by stellar cores without being influenced appreciably by the outermost layers of the stars, and are detected by aninstrument in the Homestake gold mine?

**ANSWER:**Neutrinos

##### 2) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a Pythagorean triple:

W) 15, 20, 25

X) 10, 24, 26

Y) 16, 24, 30

Z) 33, 44, 55

**ANSWER:**Y) 16, 24, 30

##### 2) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Evaluate the following expression when `a = 1/3, b = 4, c = -1, and d = -5`: `2[3a - (b + c) -4d]`

**ANSWER:**36

##### 3) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

What is one advantage to geothermal energy?

W) Low cost

X) Can be built anywhere

Y) Doesn't produce any hazardous chemicals

Z) Will never run out of steam

**ANSWER:**W

##### 3) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

In an internal combustion engine, what is the name of the device that ignites the fuel?

**ANSWER:**Spark plug

##### 4) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the conjugate base of H2SO4?

**ANSWER:**HSO4

##### 4) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the name for a compound that can’t be separated via distillation?

**ANSWER:**Azeotrope

##### 5) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

White light is incident on a diffraction grating. Which of the following colors will be diffracted through the largest angle?

W) Red

X) Yellow

Y) Blue

Z) Green

**ANSWER:**W) RED

##### 5) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A square conducting loop of length L on a side carries a current i. Which of the following best characterizes the magnetic field at the center of the loop?

W) Independent of L

X) Inversely proportional to L

Y) Proportional to L

Z) Proportional to L2

**ANSWER:**X) INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO L

##### 6) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What kind of symmetry is associated with the process of cephalization?

**ANSWER:**BILATERAL

##### 6) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the correct linkage map for the genes P, Q, R, and S given the following recombination frequencies between each gene: P-Q, 22%; P-R, 8%; P-S, 6%; S-Q, 30%; R-Q, 13%; and R-S, 15%?

**ANSWER:**SPRQ (ACCEPT: QRPS)

##### 7) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A ladder is moving at .6c, and its length is oriented parallel to its motion. In its reference frame, the distance between each rung is 50 centimeters. A stationary observer would note that the distance between each rung is actually

W) 25 centimeters

X) 30 centimeters

Y) 40 centimeters

Z) 60 centimeters

**ANSWER:**Y) 40 CENTIMETERS

##### 7) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A spaceship is moving at .8c from the perspective of an observer. It fires a projectile that moves at .8c in the direction of travel in the spaceship’s reference frame. A stationary observer of the spaceship observes the projectile to move at what speed?

**ANSWER:**(40/41)•C

##### 8) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Excluding dwarf galaxies, what is the most distant galaxy in the local group?

**ANSWER:**TRIANGULUM GALAXY (ACCEPT: M33, NGC 598)

##### 8) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Mineral grains weathered from continental rocks and transported to the oceans are deposited as which of the following kinds of sediments?

W) Calcareous (read as: kahl-KEHR-ee-is) ooze

X) Atoll

Y) Terrigenous (read as: teh-RI-jeh-nis)

Z) Hydrogenous

**ANSWER:**Y) TERRIGENOUS

##### 9) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a factor of 132:

W) 33

X) 12

Y) 22

Z) 8

**ANSWER:**Z) 8

##### 9) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Solve the following equation for x: `2x^2 + x - 1 = 0`

**ANSWER:**`x = 1/2` AND `x = -1`

##### 10) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A string 40 centimeters long produces a fundamental frequency of 384 hertz. To produce a note one octave higher, the tension in the string must be increased by which of the following factors?

W) 0.7

X) 1.4

Y) 2

Z) 4

**ANSWER:**Z) 4

##### 10) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A meter stick is held by a low-friction support on a stand. A single weight and an air-filled balloon hang from the left side of the meter stick; a weight hangs from the right side of the meter stick. The fulcrum is adjusted so that the system is balanced and level. If the string holding the balloon is burned so as to exert no torque when the string breaks, identify by number what will happen when the string breaks: 1) the right side of the meter stick will go down; 2) the left side of the meter stick will go down; or 3) the meter stick will remain balanced.

**ANSWER:**1

##### 11) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Dark, cooler areas on the sun’s surface are called

W) sunspots.

X) solar flares.

Y) coronas.

Z) prominences.

**ANSWER:**W-- SUNSPOTS

##### 11) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The Clouds of Magellan are two galaxies orbiting the Milky Way.

What kind of galaxies are they?

W) normal spiral

X) barred spiral

Y) irregular

Z) elliptical

**ANSWER:**Y-- IRREGULAR

##### 12) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following types of structures describes a beta sheet?

W) Primary

X) Secondary

Y) Tertiary [TER-shee-er-ee]

Z) Quaternary [KWOT-er-ner-ree]

**ANSWER:**X) SECONDARY

##### 12) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the oxidation state of bromine in the compound bromous acid?

**ANSWER:**+3

##### 13) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

A line with the equation y = cx + c, where c is a non-zero real number, must intersect which of the following?

W) Positive x-axis

X) Positive y-axis

Y) Negative x-axis

Z) Negative y-axis

**ANSWER:**Y) NEGATIVE x-AXIS

##### 13) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Find the slope of the line tangent to the parametric curve at the given point: `x = e^t`, and `y = lnt` (read as: y equals the natural log of t) at t = 1.

**ANSWER:**`1/e`

##### 14) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

An electron is released in space in an electric field. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

W) The electron will accelerate at a rate directly proportional to its mass

X) The electron will move parallel to the equipotential lines

Y) The field will do work on the particle

Z) The electron will move from positive to negative potential

**ANSWER:**Y) THE FIELD WILL DO WORK ON THE PARTICLE

##### 14) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A planet orbits a star in an elliptical orbit. When the planet is furthest from the star, which of the following statements is true?

W) The angular momentum of the planet is at a maximum

X) The angular momentum of the planet is at a minimum

Y) The kinetic energy of the planet is at a minimum

Z) The kinetic energy of the planet is at a maximum

**ANSWER:**Y) THE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE PLANET IS AT A MINIMUM

##### 15) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

The Leydon jar became the basis for what modern day device

**ANSWER:**CAPACITOR

##### 15) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

The Leydon jar consisted of two conducting plates, usually aluminum foil, separated by glass or plastic. What is the glass or plastic insulator called?

**ANSWER:**DIELECTRIC

##### 16) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a second quadrant angle in standard position:

W) 500°

X) -180°

Y) -680°

Z) 930°

**ANSWER:**W) 500°

##### 16) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Giving your answer in simplest radical form, rationalize the denominator of the following expression: `(-3sqrt(2))/((sqrt(3)-sqrt(5))`

**ANSWER:**`(3sqrt(6) + 3sqrt(10))/2`

##### 17) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following quantities has an inverse-cubic relationship with distance?

W) The magnitude of the gravitational force between two point masses

X) The electric potential energy for a point charge

Y) The magnetic field strength at an axial point from the center of a current loop z) The speed of a satellite in circular orbit around the Earth

**ANSWER:**Y) THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH AT AN AXIAL POINT FROM THE CENTER OF A CURRENT LOOP

##### 17) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A horizontal water pipe tapers so that the cross-sectional area of the pipe decreases. If the water moves at 3 meters per second in the larger portion of the pipe and at 15 meters per second in the smaller portion, what is the change in pressure, in pascals, as the water moves from the larger portion to the smaller portion of the pipe? Assume the density of water is 1000 kilograms per cubic meter and incompressible.

**ANSWER:**-108000 (DO NOT ACCEPT: 108000)

##### 18) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following will double the power dissipated by a resistor?

W) Doubling the voltage across the resistor

X) Decreasing the voltage to one half of the original value

Y) Increasing the voltage by a factor of the square root of 2

Z) Decreasing the voltage by a factor of the square root of 2

**ANSWER:**Y) INCREASING THE VOLTAGE BY A FACTOR OF THE SQUARE ROOT OF 2

##### 18) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Given c as 3 X 108 meters per second, what is the wavelength in meters to the nearest tenth of a radio wave with a frequency of 94.7 megahertz?

**ANSWER:**3.2

##### 19) Toss Up - Earth Science - Short Answer

If all seismic waves leave the earthquake focus at the same instant, which seismic wave will typically be recorded by as seismograph second?

**ANSWER:**S-WAVE (ACCEPT: SECONDARY OR SHEAR WAVES)

##### 19) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

The ultimate result of headward erosion would most
likely be:

W) dendritic drainage

X) karst topography

Y) spheroidal domes

Z) stream piracy

**ANSWER:**Z) STREAM PIRACY

##### 20) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Solve the following radical equation for `x`, when `x` is a real number: `root5(x+1)=2`

**ANSWER:**31

##### 20) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the greatest common factor for the numbers 63 and 273?

**ANSWER:**21

##### 21) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Oogenesis in humans begins

W) during embryonic development

X) at birth

Y) at puberty

Z) monthly during the menstrual cycle

**ANSWER:**) during embryonic development

##### 21) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

In birds and mammals, gastrulation begins at the

W) trophoblast

X) blastodisc

Y) blastocyst

Z) primitive streak

**ANSWER:**Z) primitive streak

##### 22) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

What planet is the most distant gas giant from the sun?

**ANSWER:**NEPTUNE

##### 22) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Refracting telescopes always contain which of the following:

W) mirrors

X) lenses

Y) television systems

Z) film

**ANSWER:**X) LENSES

##### 23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following falls under the domain of magnetostatics?

W) Changing current

X) Oscillating magnetic dipole

Y) Steady current

Z) Changing electric flux

**ANSWER:**Y) STEADY CURRENT

##### 23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Which of the following cases could produce a stable equilibrium in classical electromagnetism? I. Four negative charges surrounding a positive charge II. A positive charge and a negative charge in close vicinity III. Five positive charges located in the shape of an arc IV. Five negative charges in a circular orbit around a positive charge of equal size

**ANSWER:**NONE

##### 24) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Light scattered by particles of sizes similar to the wavelengths of the reflected photons are scattered by what process?

**ANSWER:**MIE SCATTERING

##### 24) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The Rayleigh scattering process depends upon the wavelength of the incident light raised to what power?

W) 2

X) 3

Y) 4

Z) 5

**ANSWER:**Y

##### 25) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Neglecting air resistance, how long would it take for an object dropped from a height of 490 meters to fall to the ground?

W) 4 seconds

X) 10 seconds

Y) 16 seconds

Z) 49 seconds

**ANSWER:**X) 10 SECONDS

##### 25) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the total distance traveled before it hits the ground by an object launched from ground-level straight up into the air at 49 meters per second?

**ANSWER:**245 M