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1) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Name the concept that assumes that each point on a wave front of an electromagnetic wave can be considered to be the center of a secondary wave front.

ANSWER: HUYGEN’S PRINCIPLE
1) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Two waves of equal velocity and frequency interfere. If they are 180° out of phase, how many nodes are there along two wavelengths of either wave, including endpoints?
W) 0
X) 1
Y) 2
Z) infinite

ANSWER: Z) INFINITE
2) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Given `f(x) = x + 1` and `g(x) = 3x`, what is `f(g(x))` [f of g of x]?

ANSWER: 3x + 1
2) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

If `g(b) = 6b^3 - 4b^2 + b + 4b^-1` [g of b equals 6 b cubed minus 4 b squared plus b plus 4 b to the negative 1], what is `g'(b)` [g prime of b]?

ANSWER: `18b^2 - 8b + l- 4b^-2` (ACCEPT: `18b^2 -8b + l - 4/b^2`)
3) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

In a cell, the membrane bounding the outer surface of the cytoplasm is known as:
W) tonoplast
X) cytoplast
Y) plasmalemma
Z) no choice

ANSWER: Y) plasmalemma
3) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Excess secretion from this gland can cause a person to be thin, hyperactive, always hungry, & irritable.
W) adrenal cortex
X) thyroid
Y) anterior pituitary
Z) adrenal medulla

ANSWER: X) thyroid
4) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The BEST explanation of why population I (read as: one) stars have a higher proportion of elements heavier than helium than population II ( read as: two) stars, is because Population I stars are:
W) younger than population II stars
X) older than population II stars
Y) usually closer to planetary nebula than population II stars
Z) often found near H-I (read as: H, one) regions

ANSWER: W) YOUNGER THAN POPULATION II STARS
4) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

How many sidereal minutes are in 7.5 sidereal hours?

ANSWER: 450
5) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following geothermal power plant types uses steam directly from the ground to spin a turbine?
W) Binary cycle
X) Flash steam
Y) Dry steam
Z) Hybrid steam

ANSWER: Y) DRY STEAM
5) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

If the solar power incident over 1 square meter at 1 au from the Sun is 1000 watts, what level in watts will it achieve at 2 au?

ANSWER: 250
6) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

From 2001 to 2011, the installed wind power in the U.S. in megawatts has increased by approximately what factor?
W) 3
X) 6
Y) 10
Z) 15

ANSWER: Y) 10
6) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

The characteristics of heating oil and diesel fuel are similar, except for which of the following?
W) Evaporation
X) Sulfur composition
Y) Volatility
Z) BTU

ANSWER: X) SULFUR COMPOSITION
7) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the name for the boundary between two or more ecological communities?

ANSWER: ECOTONE
7) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following correctly describes the path of a newly synthesized secreted protein?
W) Rough endoplasmic reticulum [en-duh-PLAZ-mik ri-TIK-yuh-luhm], vesicles[VES-i-kuhls], Golgi apparatus, vesicles, plasma membrane
X) Golgi apparatus, vesicles, rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, plasma membrane
Y) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane
Z) Golgi apparatus, vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane

ANSWER: W) ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, VESICLES, GOLGI APPARATUS, VESICLES, PLASMA MEMBRANE
8) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

The pressure of an ideal gas is kept constant while the volume of the gas is increased from 2 cubic meters to 6 cubic meters. If the initial temperature is 17° Celsius, find the final temperature in Kelvin to the nearest integer.

ANSWER: 870
8) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

By number, identify all of the following four groups of physical quantities that have the same units: 1) electric flux, electric field, and electric dipole moment; 2) heat, potential energy, and work; 3) pressure, stress, and Young’s modulus; 4) electromotive force, potential difference, and electric voltage.

ANSWER: 2, 3, AND 4
9) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Of the nine known planets in our solar system, the innermost is Mercury. When compared to the other planets in the system, Mercury has the:
W) greatest centripetal acceleration
X) greatest period of revolution
Y) smallest angular velocity
Z) smallest tangential velocity

ANSWER: W) GREATEST CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
9) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The maximum value for the displacement of a harmonic oscillator is called the
W) frequency
X) period
Y) wavelength
Z) amplitude

ANSWER: Z) AMPLITUDE
10) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Recent analysis of Cassini spacecraft data has provided convincing evidence that Saturn’s Moon Titan has:
W) large seas of liquid water
X) methane lakes on its surface
Y) a moon of its own
Z) a large active volcano

ANSWER: X) METHANE LAKES ON ITS SURFACE
10) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the next stage in the evolution of a single star after the red giant stage:
W) white dwarf
X) red dwarf
Y) planetary nebula
Z) nova

ANSWER: Y) PLANETARY NEBULA
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In titration, which of the following is most commonly used as an acid-base indicator in the pH 8 to pH 10 range?
W) Phenolphthalein [fee-knoll-THAY-lean]
X) Cresol red
Y) Bromthymol blue
Z) Methyl orange

ANSWER: W) PHENOLPHTHALEIN
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

To what total volume in milliliters would 100 milliliters of an 80% ethanol solution by volume need to be diluted to obtain a 20% solution by volume?

ANSWER: 400
12) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

A polygon shaped stop sign has a 18 inch side. What is the perimeter of the stop sign?
W) 9 feet
X) 15 feet
Y) 6 feet
Z) 12 feet

ANSWER: Z) 12 feet
12) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the time derivative of the cos(U) if U is a function of time?

ANSWER: -sin(u)[du/dt]
13) Toss Up - Computer Science - Short Answer

What does JPEG stand for?

ANSWER: JOINT PHOTOGRAPHIC EXPERTS GROUP
13) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

How many Mega Bytes Per Second is the Fast Ethernet now capable of supporting?
W) 100
X) 1000
Y) 10000
Z) none of the above

ANSWER: W) 100
14) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Unpaired electrons are present in ground-state atom of:
W) Helium
X) Calcium
Y) Oxygen
Z) Magnesium

ANSWER: Y) Oxygen
14) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Who developed the equation that is used to determine thePROBABILIT
Y) of finding the electron in any given place?

ANSWER: schrodinger
15) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

The elements in Group 8A of the periodic table are called the

ANSWER: NOBLE GASES
15) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Who classified elements into triads?
W) Mendeleev
X) Moseley
Y) Newlands
Z) Dobereine

ANSWER: Z-- DOBEREINER
16) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

How many electrons would fill the 4d energy sub shell?

ANSWER: 10
16) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In which element is the first crossing in the orbital-filling order encountered, whereby the next 2 electrons go into the 4s subshell rather than filling the 3d orbitals?
W) argon
X) scandium
Y) rubidium
Z) potassium

ANSWER: Z) POTASSIUM
17) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

To what plant division are members of the genus Marchantia classified?
W) Bryophyta
X) Pteridophyta
Y) Gnetophyta
Z) Magnoliophyta

ANSWER: W) Bryophyta
17) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Identify a plant that is a member of division Sphenopsida.

ANSWER: ferns, horsetails, club mosses (accept any one of these answers)
18) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Consider two beaches, both with source material from the same granitic mountains. The beach located further from the mountains would have:
W) Dark, more angular particles
X) Dark, rounder particles
Y) Pink, more poorly sorted sediments
Z) Lighter-colored, more well-rounded, finer particles

ANSWER: Z) LIGHTER-COLORED, MORE WELL-ROUNDED, FINER PARTICLES
18) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of physical and chemical weathering?
W) Mass wasting
X) Glaciation
Y) Frost wedging
Z) Groundwater

ANSWER: W) MASS WASTING
19) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

In general, as you move down a family the ionization energy:
W) increases
X) decreases
Y) remains the same
Z) increases or decreases

ANSWER: X) decreases
19) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A triple bond consists of:
W) three sigma bonds
X) three pi bonds
Y) two sigma bonds and one pi bond
Z) one sigma bond and two pi bonds

ANSWER: Z) one sigma bond and two pi bonds
20) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

A Mercury year lasts how many Mercury sidereal days?

ANSWER: one and one-half
20) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What is the largest type of galaxy?
W) Irregular Galaxy
X) Elliptical Galaxy
Y) Spiral Galaxy
Z) Barred-spiral Galaxy

ANSWER: X) Elliptical Galaxy
21) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

All of the following are examples of chemically precipitated sedimentary rock except:
W) limestone
X) sandstone
Y) dolomite
Z) marble

ANSWER: X) sandstone
21) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following terms is used to describe the appearance of a mineral in transmitted light?
W) diaphaneity
X) Translucence
Y) Opacaity
Z) porosity

ANSWER: W) diaphaneity
22) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following does NOT directly function in the cytoskeleton:
W) microtubules
X) microfilaments
Y) spectrin
Z) actin

ANSWER: Y) SPECTRIN
22) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Vibration of this membrane moves 3 small bones that span the cavity of the middle ear:

ANSWER: TYMPANIC MEMBRANE (ACCEPT: EARDRUM)
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Refraction occurs because waves
W) are absorbed.
X) move at different speeds in different media.
Y) strike a barrier and bounce back.
Z) bend around the edges of barriers.

ANSWER: X-- MOVE AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS IN DIFFERENT MEDIA
23) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

Sonar refers to
W) all waves of high frequency.
X) all ultrasonic waves.
Y) the science of sound.
Z) sound navigation and ranging.

ANSWER: Z-- SOUND NAVIGATION AND RANGING
24) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

The “false” ribs are not attached directly to the sternum. Of the 12 ribs, how many are “false” ribs?

ANSWER: 5
24) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The tiny ear bone that vibrates against the thin membrane covering the oval window is the
W) malleus.
X) incus.
Y) otolith.
Z) stapes.

ANSWER: Z-- STAPES
25) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

An RLC circuit must contain of all of the following, EXCEPT:
W) A capacitor
X) An inductor
Y) A diode
Z) A resistor

ANSWER: Y) A DIODE
25) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

By name or number, identify all of the following four factors that directly affect the amount of electricity generated from hydroelectric dams: 1) water temperature, 2) flow, 3) head, 4) time of day.

ANSWER: FLOW AND HEAD (ACCEPT: 2 AND 3)