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1) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Most biologists believe that no other group of multicellular animals evolved from the
W) flatworms.
X) sponges.
Y) cnidarians.
Z) roundworms.

ANSWER: X-- SPONGES
1) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

The gills of a clam are located in the
W) foot.
X) mantle.
Y) visceral mass.
Z) shell.

ANSWER: Y-- VISCERAL MASS
2) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

What fraction of the petroleum (oil) consumed in the United States is used for transportation?
W) 1/3
X) 1/2
Y) 3/4
Z) 9/10

ANSWER: Y) 3/4
2) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which States consumes the most energy?
W)  California 
X)  New York 
Y)  Florida 
Z)  Texas

ANSWER: Z
3) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the mechanism of action of most insecticides?
W) Blocking oxygen intake
X) Disrupting nerve function
Y) Preventing digestion
Z) Stopping DNA synthesis

ANSWER: X) DISRUPTING NERVE FUNCTION
3) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the general name for integral membrane proteins that directly couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient?

ANSWER: PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORTERS (ALSO ACCEPT: DIRECT ACTIVE TRANSPORT; DO NOT ACCEPT: ACTIVE TRANSPORTERS, SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORTERS)
4) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following types of magma would LEAST likely be involved in a nonexplosive volcanic eruption:
W) basaltic magma
X) a relatively viscous magma
Y) a relatively low silica content magma
Z) a relatively high-temperature magma

ANSWER: X) a relatively viscous magma
4) Bonus - Earth Science - Short Answer

Name all of the following 3 lavas from which stratovolcanoes are typically composed: andesite; rhyolite; basalt

ANSWER: Andesite; Rhyolite
5) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the formula for the hydronium (pronounced: HY-DRO-knee-um) ion:
W) OH-
X) H+
Y) H3O-
Z) H3O+

ANSWER: Z) H?O+
5) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

The explosive TNT made from nitric acid is formally known as:

ANSWER: TRINITROTOLUENE
6) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is the name for the energy gap between the valence shell and the conduction shell in a species?

ANSWER: BAND GAP
6) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A species with a large band gap would be a
W) conductor
X) semiconductor
Y) insulator
Z) metamaterial

ANSWER: Y) INSULATOR
7) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Farmers who wish to delay ripening sometimes flush their fruits with carbon dioxide. Why is this done?
W) High carbon dioxide concentrations cause the synthesis of gibberellins to be inhibited.
X) High carbon dioxide concentrations create very favorable environments for bacterial and fungal growth, killing the fruit.
Y) Carbon dioxide crowds out oxygen, causing the fruit to die as no cellular respiration can occur.
Z) Carbon dioxide prevents ethylene from accumulating.

ANSWER: Z) Carbon dioxide prevents ethylene from accumulating.
7) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

What is the hypothesis that explains how auxin leads to plant growth?
W) Acid growth hypothesis
X) Induced replication model
Y) Auxin apoptotic model
Z) Cyclic auxin model

ANSWER: W) Acid growth hypothesis
8) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What type of water condition is created by differing water densities resulting from melting ice caps and glaciers?

ANSWER: STRATIFIED
8) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Thermohaline circulation is an important moderator of Earth’s climate. Approximately how long in years does it take for a parcel of water to transit this circulation pathway?
W) 1
X) 10
Y) 100
Z) 1000

ANSWER: Z) 1000
9) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

One of the oldest constellations is associated with a legendary early king of Athens and is supposed to be a charioteer. Name it.

ANSWER: AURIGA
9) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Name the comet, responsible for the Leonid meteor showers, that returned in February 1998.

ANSWER: TEMPEL-TUTTLE
10) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

If a plant had a taproot, it would also most likely have:
W) parallel leaf venation
X) two cotyledons in its seedling stage
Y) diffusely arranged vascular bundles in its stem
Z) no stomata on the upper surfaces of its leaves

ANSWER: X) TWO COTYLEDONS IN ITS SEEDLING STAGE
10) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Using the traditional system of classification, when organisms belong to the same class, name all of the following 4 taxonomic categories to which they must also belong: order; family; phylum; kingdom

ANSWER: PHYLUM; KINGDOM
11) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following are NOT found in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast?
W) Carotenoids
X) Rubisco
Y) Water
Z) ADP

ANSWER: X) RUBISCO
11) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

By name or number, order the following five cell layers in a eudicot (read as: yuh-DY-koht) root from most lateral to most medial: 1) pericycle, 2) epidermis, 3) endodermis, 4) phloem, 5) cortex.

ANSWER: EPIDERMIS, CORTEX, ENDODERMIS, PERICYCLE, PHLOEM (ACCEPT: 2, 5, 3, 1, 4)
12) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following has the lowest freezing point?
W) Water
X) Chloroform
Y) Acetic acid
Z) Ethanol

ANSWER: Z) ETHANOL
12) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Given that the Kb of a particular solvent is 2.53 oC per molal and providing your answer to two decimal places, by how many degrees Celsius would the boiling point of a solution be raised if it contains 3.0 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 6.0 kilograms of solvent?

ANSWER: 1.27 (ACCEPT: 1.26)
13) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

According to Kepler's Laws, the cube of the mean distance of a planet from the sun is proportional to the:
W) area that is swept out
X) cube of the period
Y) square of the period
Z) fourth power of the mean distance

ANSWER: Y) square of the period
13) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Who was the first individual to observe the phases of Venus? He observed Venus' phases with a telescope that he had built.

ANSWER: galileo
14) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

During inspiration, the diaphragm moves:
W) down by contraction
X) down by relaxation
Y) up by contraction
Z) up by relaxation

ANSWER: W) down by contraction
14) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

According to the viral theory of cancer, normal cells are transformed into cancerous cells by
W) malignant viruses
X) benign viruses
Y) viral protein coats
Z) oncogenes

ANSWER: Z) oncogenes
15) Toss Up - Energy - Short Answer

Tidal energy is difficult to practically harness because the difference between high tide and low tide needs to be at least 16 feet. What country is the largest producer of electricity from tidal energy?

ANSWER: FRANCE
15) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

What is the name of the process by which impurities are added to an intrinsic semiconductor to modulate its electrical properties?

ANSWER: DOPING
16) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A transverse wave travels along a stretched string towards the fixed end of the string. When the wave reaches the fixed end, it:
W) reflects, traveling in the opposite direction without being inverted
X) reflects, traveling in the opposite direction and inverted
Y) reflects, traveling in the opposite direction at much lower speed
Z) transfers its energy to the string in the form of heat

ANSWER: X) REFLECTS, TRAVELING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION AND INVERTED
16) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Longitudinal waves with frequencies below about 20 Hz are called:

ANSWER: INFRASONIC
17) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Main sequence stars are found in a region on the H-R diagram that is oriented on the diagram from:
W) upper left to lower left
X) upper left to lower right
Y) upper right to lower left
Z) upper right to lower right

ANSWER: X) UPPER LEFT TO LOWER RIGHT
17) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the BEST explanation for why the Northern Hemisphere’s summer occurs when the Sun is not the closest to Earth in Earth’s orbit around the Sun:
W) the Sun’s rays are made of mostly neutrinos that have such small mass that distance does not matter
X) the Sun emits different amounts of energy at different times of the year
Y) the Sun’s rays strike the Northern Hemisphere more directly in summer
Z) because of precession

ANSWER: Y) THE SUN’S RAYS STRIKE THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE MORE DIRECTLY IN SUMMER
18) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

At the North and South poles, which of the following correctly describes apparent motion of the stars:
W) they move in circles parallel with the horizon
X) they rise and set vertically
Y) they remain stationary
Z) they rise and set at an angle to the horizon

ANSWER: W) THEY MOVE IN CIRCLES PARALLEL WITH THE HORIZON
18) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the region around the Earth occupied by the Earth’s magnetic field:

ANSWER: MAGNETOSPHERE
19) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

In bacterial transference of genes, what is the term for when naked DNA enters the cell from the surroundings:

ANSWER: TRANSDUCTION
19) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the type of plant leaf that lacks a palisade and spongy mesophyll:
W) common crabgrass
X) dandelion
Y) apple tree
Z) lotus plant

ANSWER: W) COMMON CRABGRASS
20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an exothermic reaction:
W) condensation
X) freezing
Y) vaporization
Z) deposition

ANSWER: Y) VAPORIZATION
20) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Unlike other halogens, this element does not form higher oxides or oxyacids:

ANSWER: FLUORINE (ACCEPT: F)
21) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

The composition of the Sun is believed to be mainly
W) oxygen and nitrogen
X) carbon and oxygen
Y) hydrogen and helium
Z) hydrogen and iron

ANSWER: Y) HYDROGEN AND HELIUM
21) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

How is the Roche (Pronounce: Roash) limit defined?
W) the critical distance from a planet, inside of which a body can be tidally destroyed
X) the maximum density that a body can have, depending on its composition
Y) the maximum distance from a planet that a moon can experience synchronous rotation
Z) the maximum mass a moon can have and still be classified as a moon

ANSWER: W) THE CRITICAL DISTANCE FROM A PLANET, INSIDE OF WHICH A BODY CAN BE TIDALLY DESTROYED
22) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A large spring requires a force of 150 Newtons to compress it only 0.010 meters. What is the spring constant of the spring?

ANSWER: 15000 NEWTONS PER METER
22) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The number of overtones, and their relative intensities, is associated with what property of the tone generated by a musical instrument?
W) quality
X) interference pattern
Y) range
Z) attack pattern

ANSWER: W) QUALITY
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Norton’s Theorem states that any complicated circuit of resistors and voltages may be rearranged into
W) an equivalent resistance in series with an equivalent voltage.
X) an equivalent resistance in parallel with an equivalent voltage.
Y) an equivalent resistance in series with an equivalent current source.
Z) an equivalent resistance in parallel with an equivalent current source.

ANSWER: Z) AN EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL WITH AN EQUIVALENT CURRENT SOURCE.
23) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The Thevenin Equivalent voltage of a circuit is 18V and the Thevenin Equivalent resistance is 3 Ohms. The maximum power output over the load in such a circuit is
W) 15 W
X) 21 W
Y) 27 W
Z) 33 W

ANSWER: Y) 27 W
24) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Plate divergence is responsible for all of the following formations, EXCEPT:
W) East African Rift Valley
X) Iceland
Y) East Pacific Rise
Z) Indonesian Islands

ANSWER: Z) INDONESIAN ISLANDS
24) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

By name or number, identify all of the following five geologic formations that are commonly formed at convergent boundaries where one oceanic plate is subducted below another oceanic plate: 1) trench, 2) backarc, 3) basin and range, 4) accretionary wedge, 5) rift zone.

ANSWER: TRENCH, BACKARC, ACCRETIONARY WEDGE (ACCEPT: 1, 2 AND 4)
25) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Which principle states that all points on a wave front are taken as point sources for the production of spherical second waves?

ANSWER: HUYGEN’S PRINCIPLE
25) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

At some particular angle of incidence, the refracted light ray moves parallel to the boundary. For angles greater than this, light is entirely reflected at the boundary. What is this angle called?

ANSWER: CRITICAL ANGLE