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1) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

In the northern hemisphere, which of the following degrees latitude would experience a length of day of 6 months:
W) 0
X) 30
Y) 60
Z) 90

ANSWER: Z) 90
1) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a substance that is generally considered friable:
W) concrete
X) topaz
Y) quartz
Z) perlite

ANSWER: Z) PERLITE (Solution: it is easily reduced to smaller pieces with little effort)
2) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A BJT with a hFE of 150 has a base current of 320mA. Assuming it is not driven to saturation, what is the collector current, to the nearest tenth of an ampere?

ANSWER: 48.0 A (Reasoning: IEC=hFE*IBC)
2) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Rank the following diode configurations in order of decreasing voltage drop: forward-biased silicon diode, forward-biased germanium diode, reverse-biased Zener diode, reverse-biased avalanche diode.

ANSWER: reverse-biased avalanche diode, reverse-biased Zener diode, forward-biased silicon diode, forward-biased germanium diode (Accept: 4, 3, 1, 2)
3) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

A substance with an acid dissociation constant, or Ka, of 1 X 1Q'9 would be considered a:
W) weak acid
X) strong acid
Y) weak base
Z) strong base

ANSWER: W) WEAK ACID
3) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Which Law states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass?

ANSWER: GRAHAMS’ LAW
4) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which law most directly states that a black body is a perfect source of thermal radiation:
W) Carnot's law
X) Kirchoffs law
Y) Planck's law
Z) Dirac's law

ANSWER: X) KIRCHOFF'S LAW
4) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What are the electric charge values for up, down, and strange quarks, respectively?

ANSWER: 2/3; -1/3; AND -1/3
5) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Select the element with the smallest first ionization energy
W) Rubidium
X) Magnesium
Y) Iodine
Z) Arsenic

ANSWER: W) RUBIDIUM
5) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What law states that the pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature at constant volume and number of moles?

ANSWER: AMONTON'S LAW
6) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a binary-type programming language that the computer can run directly?
W) RAM language
X) Machine language
Y) Parity language
Z) Instruction language

ANSWER: X-- MACHINE LANGUAGE
6) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not a type of scanning technology?
W) MICR (spell out)
X) POS
Y) OMR
Z) OCR

ANSWER: X-- POS
7) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is LEAST accurate:
W) recent evidence suggests a subsurface salty ocean is present on the Moon Europa
X) spiral galaxies are actively forming stars
Y) Earth’s aphelion occurs on the summer solstice
Z) Julian days are often used as the time reference on light curves of stars

ANSWER: Y) EARTH’S APHELION OCCURS ON THE SUMMER SOLSTICE
7) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

What would happen in the mid-northern latitudes if the tilt of the Earth’s axis decreased by 15 degrees:
W) warmer summers and warmer winters
X) cooler summers and cooler winters
Y) cooler summers and warmer winters
Z) colder summers and colder winters

ANSWER: Y) COOLER SUMMERS AND WARMER WINTERS
8) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

Myosin is one of two proteins that make up the myofibrils of striated muscles. Name the other protein.

ANSWER: actin
8) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

For which of the following creatures is fat the greatest percentage of body weight?
W) termite
X) blue whale
Y) zebra
Z) female lion

ANSWER: X) blue whale
9) Toss Up - General Science - Short Answer

What is another name for the Paleolithic Age?

ANSWER: THE STONE AGE
9) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

Solar energy is the world’s most abundant source of energy. The amount of solar energy intercepted by earth is about how many times greater than the sum of all other sources of energy?
W) 500
X) 1,000
Y) 5,000
Z) 10,000

ANSWER: Y-- 5,000
10) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the name for the group of muscles that stabilize the shoulder joint by holding the head of the humerus in its socket?

ANSWER: ROTATOR CUFF
10) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

The "one gene one enzyme" rule proposed by Beadle and Tatum was mostly based upon their work with what genus of organisms?

ANSWER: NEUROSPORA
11) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following constellations are circumpolar for people in North America and are found on opposite sides and close to Polaris:
W) Cassiopeia and Ursa Major
X) Orion and Leo
Y) Aquarius and Capricorn
Z) Leo and Sagittarius

ANSWER: W) CASSIOPEIA AND URSA MAJOR
11) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the astronomical distance at which a star would have a parallax of 1 arcsecond?

ANSWER: PARSEC
12) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

Mutations can be caused by
W) ultraviolet light
X) X rays
Y) certain chemicals
Z) all of the above

ANSWER: Z) ALL OF THE ABOVE
12) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What is the term for a solid with four sides, each of which is a triangle?

ANSWER: TETRAHEDRON
13) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true:
W) most of the meteorites that have been found have a high iron content
X) a bolometer is used to measure the energy output of the Sun
Y) the celestial coordinate analogous to latitude is called ascension
Z) sunlight reflecting off the Earth is called Earthshine

ANSWER: Y) THE CELESTIAL COORDINATE ANALOGOUS TO LATITUDE IS CALLED ASCENSION
13) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following BEST describes the zenith:
W) the point in the sky that is at 180 degrees of inclination to the horizon
X) 90 degrees opposite to the nadir
Y) the opposite position on the ecliptic to an observer
Z) the point on the celestial sphere directly overhead of an observer

ANSWER: Z) THE POINT ON THE CELESTIAL SPHERE DIRECTLY OVERHEAD OF AN OBSERVER
14) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

An object of mass m sits on a flat table. The Earth pulls on the object with force mg. Which of the following is the corresponding reaction force?
W) The table pushing down on the floor with force mg
X) The object pushing down on the table with force mg
Y) The object pulling upward on the Earth with force mg
Z) The table pushing up on the object with force mg

ANSWER: Y) THE OBJECT PULLING UPWARD ON THE EARTH WITH FORCE mg
14) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A projectile is fired from a gun at an angle of 45o with respect to the horizontal. Given 9.8 meters per second squared as the acceleration due to gravity, and neglecting air resistance, what are the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the projectile when it reaches its maximum height?

ANSWER: 9.8 METERS PER SECOND SQUARED, DOWNWARD (ACCEPT: -9.8 METERS PER SECOND SQUARED)
15) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following planets has the greatest eccentricity?
W) Pluto
X) Jupiter
Y) Mars
Z) Mercury

ANSWER: Z) Mercury
15) Bonus - Astronomy - Short Answer

Which planet has the shortest year?

ANSWER: Mercury
16) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following turns blue litmus paper red?
W) NH3
X) H2SO4
Y) KOH
Z) NaOH

ANSWER: X) H2SO4
16) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Its value is 6.022x1023 and is the number of particles in one mole of substance. What is the symbol for this constant?

ANSWER: Na or N
17) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

How many people have set foot on the Moon?

ANSWER: twelve
17) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following planets is NOT known to have any orbiting satellites:
W) Venus
X) Mars
Y) Uranus
Z) Saturn

ANSWER: W) Venus
18) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following sets of particles can be the result of a muon's decay?
W) quark, anti-quark, and electron
X) quark, anti-quark, and muon antineutrino
Y) tau, tau antineutrino, muon neutrino
Z) electron, electron antineutrino, muon neutrino

ANSWER: Z) ELECTRON, ELECTRON ANTINEUTRINO, MUON NEUTRINO
18) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle can be restated so that rather than referring to position and momentum, it refers instead to time and what other quantity?

ANSWER: ENERGY
19) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the bond order for each oxygen-oxygen bond in the ozone or O3 molecule?

ANSWER: (Accept: 1.5)
19) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What is the scientific term for the ratio between the density of a given substance to that of water when both are at the same temperature?

ANSWER: Specific Gravity (Accept: Relative Density)
20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The reaction of the anions and cations of salts with water to form acid or base solutions is called
W) amphoterism.
X) dissociation.
Y) hydrolysis.
Z) neutralization.

ANSWER: Y-- HYDROLYSIS
20) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The acid that is often called the “King of Chemicals” is
W) sulfuric acid.
X) nitric acid.
Y) phosphoric acid.
Z) acetic acid.

ANSWER: W-- SULFURIC ACID
21) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Why is anthracite coal considered a metamorphic rock?
W) It is a fossil fuel
X) Higher burn rates
Y) Chiefly composed of the element Carbon
Z) Exposure to elevated temperature and pressure

ANSWER: Z) Exposure to elevated temperature and pressure
21) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which country accounts for the majority of global production of anthracite coal?
W) Russia
X) Canada
Y) Ukraine
Z) China

ANSWER: Z) China
22) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

The disappearance of the dinosaurs also marks the end of which geological era?
W) Precambrian
X) Cambrian
Y) Mesozoic
Z) Cenozoic

ANSWER: Y) Mesozoic
22) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Of the following four geologic periods, which is the oldest?
W) Devonian
X) Permian
Y) Silurian
Z) Triassic

ANSWER: Y) Silurian
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

When a person whirls a rock on the end of a string and maintains it in uniform circular motion, the force exerted on the rock is most accurately referred to as:
W) centrifugal
X) centripetal
Y) rotational
Z) center fleeing

ANSWER: X) CENTRIPETAL
23) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

For two objects separated by a distance d, if the mass of one of the objects is doubled, what will happen to the gravitational attraction between them?

ANSWER: IT IS DOUBLED
24) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

The sin(180 degrees + A) is equal to which of the following?
W) sin(A)
X) -sin(A)
Y) cos(A)
Z) -cos(A)

ANSWER: X) -sin(A)
24) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

The value of sin(30) + cos(60) is:
W) square root of 2
X) 2.5
Y) 1
Z) 2.3

ANSWER: Y) 1
25) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is characteristic of a deep residual soil?
W) Unaltered bedrock
X) An immature soil
Y) Soil that has been weathering for a long period of time
Z) Soil derived from rocks exposed to the hydrosphere and atmosphere

ANSWER: Y) SOIL THAT HAS BEEN WEATHERING FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME
25) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

The word "solstice” means "sunstop.” Which of the following does this reference?
W) The Sun’s daily change in declination stops and reverses direction
X) The Sun literally stops in our sky for a brief but measurable time
Y) The Earth reaches the point where the Sun shines directly on the equator, restarting the solar calendar
Z) The ancient belief that the Earth orbited the Sun

ANSWER: W) THE SUN’S DAILY CHANGE IN DECLINATION STOPS AND REVERSES DIRECTION