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1) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Two blocks are released from the top of a building. One falls straight down while the other slides down a smooth ramp. If all friction is ignored, which one is moving faster when it reaches the bottom?
W) the block that went straight down
X) the block that went down the ramp
Y) they both have the same speed
Z) insufficient information to work the problem

ANSWER: Y) THEY BOTH HAVE THE SAME SPEED
1) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

If a is acceleration, v is velocity, x is position, and t is time, then which equation is not dimensionally correct?
W) t = x/v (Read: t equals x divied by v)
X) a = v2/x (Read: a equals v squared divided by x)
Y) v = a/t (Read: v equals a divided by t)
Z) t2 = 2x/a (Read: t squared equals two x divided by a)

ANSWER: Y) V = A/T
2) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

A .02kg bullet is fired at 300m/s into a stationary 4kg chunk of ballistics gel, and exits at 100m/s, if the gel is on a frictionless horizontal surface, what is its speed?

ANSWER: 1M/S
2) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A 2kg object with velocity 10m/s collides with a 8kg, initially stationary object, and the 2kg object bounces back at -2m/s, how much energy has been dissipated in the collision?
W) 20J
X) 40J
Y) 60J
Z) 120J

ANSWER: Y) 60J
3) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

Some vitamin tablets contain high concentrations of zinc and must be formulated to include high levels of which of the following minerals in order to prevent an induced anemia:
W) copper
X) calcium
Y) magnesium
Z) boron

ANSWER: W) COPPER
3) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What is the most common name for the technique that places a molecule in a strong magnetic field, irradiates the molecule with radio waves, and finally detects changes in the spin of atoms in the molecule?

ANSWER: NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (ACCEPT: NMR or MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY)
4) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What law describes the speed that a fluid is expelled through a hole from a container that is filled to some height above the hole?

ANSWER: TORRICELLI’S LAW
4) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A fluid container is filled 5 centimeters above a small hole in its side through which fluid can escape. Assuming gravitational acceleration to be 10 m/s2, how fast is the liquid expelled?
W) 0.25 m/s
X) 0.5 m/s
Y) 1 m/s
Z) 2 m/s

ANSWER: Y) 1 M/S
5) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the most common name for the horizontal enlarged stem of Solanum tuberosum?

ANSWER: POTATO (ACCEPT: TUBER)
5) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following biomes is NOT properly matched with its description:
W) tundra has extreme cold and presence of permafrost
X) taiga has moderately wet summers and long cold winters
Y) chaparral has hot wet summers and moderate dry winters
Z) temperate grasslands have occasional droughts with warm summers and cool to cold winters

ANSWER: Y) CHAPARRAL HAS HOT WET SUMMERS AND MODERATE DRY WINTERS
6) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Halos and rings around the Moon in the night sky are most often caused by which of the following:
W) nucleation particles in the stratosphere
X) small water droplets in nimbostratus clouds
Y) temperature inversions
Z) ice crystals in cirrus clouds

ANSWER: Z) ICE CRYSTALS IN CIRRUS CLOUDS
6) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following types of volcanic eruptions is distinguished primarily by its eruption of basaltic and andesitic magma from its vent, producing incandescent bombs that fall near the vent, eventually building a small cone of tephra:
W) Plinian
X) Hawaiin
Y) Pelean
Z) Strombolian

ANSWER: Z) STROMBOLIAN
7) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

The most common method used by Beadle and Tatum in generating mutant molds for their metabolic studies was to expose the molds to what?

ANSWER: X-RAYS
7) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Which 2 of the following 4 amino acids contain nonpolar R groups? serine; glutamine; leucine; (read as: lew-seen), phenylalanine (read as: FEE-nal-AL-a-neen)

ANSWER: LEUCINE; PHENYLALANINE
8) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

PCR does NOT use which of the following:
W) heat to separate strands
X) primers
Y) DNA polymerase
Z) reverse transcriptase

ANSWER: Z) REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
8) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

B cells get their name from what part of a bird’s body?

ANSWER: BURSA FABRICUS
9) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Whose equation describes the relationship between the concentration of an electro-active species and electric potential?
W) Ohm
X) Joule
Y) Nernst
Z) Bode

ANSWER: Y) NERNST
9) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

Arrange the following four substances in order of decreasing energy content in kilocalories per gram: 1) proteins, 2) organic acids, 3) fats, 4) ethanol.

ANSWER: 3, 4, 1, 2 (ACCEPT: FATS, ETHANOL, PROTEINS, ORGANIC ACIDS)
10) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following pairs of angles are complementary?
W) `tan^-1(1)` and `sin^-1(sqrt(3)/2)`
X) `cos^-1(2/3)` and `cos^-1(-2/3)`
Y) `sin^-1(1/3)` and `cos^-1(1/3)`
Z) `tan^-1(1/5)` and `cos^-1(4/5)`

ANSWER: Y) `sin^-1(1/3)` and `cos^-1(1/3)`
10) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

List the following angles from smallest to largest: `cos^-1(2/5)`, `sin^-1(4/5)`, `tan^-1(2)`

ANSWER: `sin^-1(4/5)`, `tan^-1(2)`, `cos^-1(2/5)` (ACCEPT: 2, 3, 1)
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Calculate the atom percent composition, rounded to the nearest whole number, for each atom in acetic acid:

ANSWER: C = 25%; H = 50%; O = 25%
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Calculate the mass percent composition, rounded to the nearest whole number, for each atom in acetic acid:

ANSWER: C = 40%; H = 7%; O = 53% (Solution: C = 24/60 x 100% = 40%; H = 4/60 x 100% = 6.7%; O = 32/60 x 100% = 53.3%)
12) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

A point mass is traveling in uniform circular motion at a rate of 800 rotations per minute with a diameter of 10 meters. If the particle’s speed doubles but its centripetal acceleration remains the same, what is the new diameter of the circle?
W) 5 meters
X) 10 meters
Y) 20 meters
Z) 40 meters

ANSWER: Z) 40 METERS
12) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A wheel is rotating with an initial angular velocity of 10.00 radians per second. The wheel experiences a brief period of acceleration and has a new angular velocity of 14.14 radians per second. If the wheel has rotated through an angle of 10 radians, what is the average angular acceleration of the wheel? W) 1 radian per second per second X) 5 radians per second per second Y) 100 radians per second per second Z) 200 radians per second per second

ANSWER: X) 5 RADIANS PER SECOND PER SECOND
13) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

The development of this is usually considered by anthropologists and sociologists the main prerequisite for an advanced social, economic and political structure:
W) art
X) technology
Y) monetary system
Z) agriculture

ANSWER: Z) AGRICULTURE
13) Bonus - General Science - Short Answer

What term derived from the Greek word for “shortcoming” generally means an apparent lag in effect behind what is causing it?

ANSWER: HYSTERESIS
14) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following scientists did not discover the electron, neutron, or proton?
W) Rutherford
X) Chadwick
Y) Thomson
Z) Yukawa

ANSWER: Z) YUKAWA
14) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

A 50 kg man climbs up Half Dome from the floor of Yosemite Valley, ascending 1500 meters. To two significant figures, how many kilocalories does he convert into gravitational potential energy? Take g to be 10 meters per second squared.

ANSWER: 180 KILOCALORIES
15) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The greatest induced EMF will occur in a straight wire moving at constant speed through a uniform magnetic field when the angle between the direction of the wire’s motion and the direction of the magnetic field is
W) 0 degrees.
X) 30 degrees.
Y) 60 degrees.
Z) 90 degrees.

ANSWER: Z-- 90 DEGREES
15) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The Michelson interferometer was designed to study the nature of
W) water waves.
X) sound waves.
Y) sunlight.
Z) an “ether”.

ANSWER: Z-- AN “ETHER”
16) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

Information is carried by AM radio waves as a pattern of changes in

ANSWER: AMPLITUDE
16) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

In a cathode-ray tube
W) the electron beam is controlled by electromagnets.
X) about one picture per second is produced.
Y) the fewer the number of electrons striking the screen, the brighter the light the screen gives off.
Z) the fluorescent material on the screen causes the electrons to move up and down the screen.

ANSWER: W-- THE ELECTRON BEAM IS CONTROLLED BY ELECTROMAGNETS
17) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

The lines defined by y = 2x and 2y = -x are which of the following?
W) Parallel
X) Perpendicular
Y) Horizontal
Z) Vertical

ANSWER: X) PERPENDICULAR
17) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Providing your answers as fractions in lowest terms, what are the x-intercepts of the graph of `y = 12x^2 - 5x - 2`?

ANSWER: `2/3` AND `-1/4`
18) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

The dot product of vectors `vec u = (:u_1,u_2:)` (read as: u equals u one comma u two) and `vec v = (:v_1,v_2:)` is

ANSWER: `u_1 v_1 + u_2 v_2`
18) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

When graphing a rational function, it is important to note that
W) the graph cannot cross a vertical asymptote
X) the graph can cross a horizontal asymptote
Y) a graph may have both a vertical and horizontal asymptote
Z) all of the above

ANSWER: Z) ALL OF THE ABOVE
19) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following types of moraines does NOT parallel ice flow:
W) medial
X) lateral
Y) double lateral
Z) end

ANSWER: Z) end
19) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is both fluorescent and radioactive:
W) calcite
X) halite
Y) talc
Z) zircon

ANSWER: Z) zircon
20) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

What characteristic has made angiosperms so successful during the last 140 million years?
W) They are very tall, outcompeting other plants for sunlight
X) They have flowers to attract pollinators
Y) They are thorny to deter herbivores from consuming them
Z) They are the only plants that can reproduce asexually

ANSWER: X) THEY HAVE FLOWERS TO ATTRACT POLLINATORS
20) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Fruits primarily function in order to entice animals to eat them. In what way does this benefit the fruiting plant?
W) Animals disperse the seeds
X) Animals pollinate while eating the fruits
Y) Animals eat the fruit instead of other parts of the plant
Z) There is no benefit to the plant

ANSWER: W) ANIMALS DISPERSE THE SEEDS
21) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the terrestrial planets:
W) low average density
X) closely spaced orbits
Y) craters in old surfaces
Z) very few moons

ANSWER: W) LOW AVERAGE DENSITY
21) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true of Kepler’s works in astronomy:
W) Kepler gathered most of his data from his monitoring of the planets with a quadrant
X) Kepler very seldom observed the planets and looked through a telescope only a few times in his life
Y) many of Kepler’s computations were based on data gathered by Tycho Brahe
Z) Kepler assumed planetary motion was not circular

ANSWER: W) KEPLER GATHERED MOST OF HIS DATA FROM HIS MONITORING OF THE PLANETS WITH A QUADRANT
22) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is best used to date the age of the Earth to about 4.5 billion years old:
W) uranium-235
X) uranium-238
Y) potassium-40
Z) carbon-14

ANSWER: X) URANIUM-238
22) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a ubiquitous trace mineral found in many igneous, metamorphic and clastic sedimentary rocks, and has been used to date Earth’s oldest rocks at 4-plus billion years:
W) titanite
X) tremolite
Y) zircon
Z) beryl

ANSWER: Y) ZIRCON
23) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

Name all of the following 3 concentration units that are temperature-dependent: molal (read as: moe-LAHL); molarity; normality

ANSWER: MOLARITY; NORMALITY
23) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Calculate the enthalpy of vaporization, in kilojoules, of water at 25°C and 1 atmosphere. Assume the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid water is -286 kilojoules and the standard enthalpy of formation of water gas is -242 kilojoules:

ANSWER: 44 (Solution: AH°reaction = EnpAHf°(products) - EnrAHf°(reactants) = [-242 - (-286) = +44.0 kJ)
24) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

In an isovolumetric process by an ideal gas, the system's heat gain is proportional to a change in
W) mass
X) volume
Y) pressure
Z) internal energy

ANSWER: Z) INTERNAL ENERGY
24) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

When I stand half way between two speakers, with one on my left and one on my right, a musical note from the speakers gives me constructive interference. How far to my left should I move to obtain destructive interference?
W) one fourth of a wavelength
X) half a wavelength
Y) one wavelength
Z) one and a half wavelengths

ANSWER: W) ONE FOURTH OF A WAVELENGTH
25) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

When the change of enthalpy of a reaction is negative and the change of entropy of the same reaction is positive, the reaction is which of the following?
W) Always spontaneous
X) Spontaneous only under high temperature conditions
Y) Spontaneous only under low temperature conditions
Z) Never spontaneous

ANSWER: W) ALWAYS SPONTANEOUS
25) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

By name or number, identify all of the following four diatomic molecules whose bond strength would decrease after the removal of an electron to form a positively charged ion: 1) H2, 2) B2, 3) ClBr, 4) OF.

ANSWER: H2, B2, ClBr (ACCEPT: 1, 2, AND 3)