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1) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

There are more possible antibodies to antigens than there are genes that code for these antibodies in the human genome. Which of the following BEST accounts for this:
W) genes mutate constantly in B cells
X) genes for antibodies are spliced together from different chromosomal loci
Y) antibodies have large amounts of cross reactivity with various antigens
Z) antibodies are only specific for certain parts of an antigen

ANSWER: X) genes for antibodies are spliced together from different chromosomal loci
1) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following was a technique invented by Meselson and Stahl in their classic experiments to support the theory of semiconservative replication:
W) radiolabeling of DNA
X) density gradient centrifugation
Y) electrophoresis
Z) autoradiography

ANSWER: X) density gradient centrifugation
2) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What year does the roman numeral MCMXC stand for?

ANSWER: 1990
2) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

What is the SMALLEST prime number greater than 23?

ANSWER: 29
3) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is more soluble in ethanol than in water?
W) 12
X) HCI
Y) AgN03
Z) NH3

ANSWER: W) 12
3) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

Reactions of which order are typically associated with catalysts?

ANSWER: zeroth
4) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the formula for the hydronium (pronounced: HY-DRO-knee-um) ion:
W) OH-
X) H+
Y) H3O-
Z) H3O+

ANSWER: Z) H?O+
4) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

The explosive TNT made from nitric acid is formally known as:

ANSWER: TRINITROTOLUENE
5) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

A tetrad in prophase one of meiosis has how many chromosomes and chromatids, respectively?

ANSWER: Chromosomes = 2; chromatids = 4
5) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the area of the human brain that functions to allow the two hemispheres to communicate?

ANSWER: Corpus callosum
6) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following metals melts in your hand?
W) gallium
X) cesium
Y) sodium
Z) magnesium

ANSWER: W) gallium
6) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The three isotopes of hydrogen are protium, tritiu and:
W) heprin
X) helium
Y) duodenum
Z) deuterium

ANSWER: Z) deuterium
7) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

What is the name for the boundary between two or more ecological communities?

ANSWER: ECOTONE
7) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following correctly describes the path of a newly synthesized secreted protein?
W) Rough endoplasmic reticulum [en-duh-PLAZ-mik ri-TIK-yuh-luhm], vesicles[VES-i-kuhls], Golgi apparatus, vesicles, plasma membrane
X) Golgi apparatus, vesicles, rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, plasma membrane
Y) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane
Z) Golgi apparatus, vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane

ANSWER: W) ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, VESICLES, GOLGI APPARATUS, VESICLES, PLASMA MEMBRANE
8) Toss Up - Biology - Short Answer

In eukaryotes, which enzyme proofreads while DNA replication takes place?

ANSWER: DNA Polymerase (accept DNA Polymerase III)
8) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

What is the general name for a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid?

ANSWER: missense mutation
9) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following physiological conditions would most likely result in left ventricular hypertrophy:
W) decrease in pulmonary pressure
X) increase in pulmonary pressure
Y) increase in peripheral systemic blood pressure
Z) decrease in peripheral systemic blood pressure

ANSWER: Y) INCREASE IN PERIPHERAL SYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE
9) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

If 1n is haploid, 2n is diploid, and 1s is the DNA content in a haploid genome, then what is the n and s value of a human cell in metaphase two of meiosis?

ANSWER: 2N AND 2S (ACCEPT: 2 AND 2)
10) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

Which of the following best represents a closed system?
W) A 2-liter bottle filled with aquatic plants, a fish, water, and a bit of air, sealed with a tight lid and placed in a window
X) A terrarium with a closed lid, some plants, and a live boa constrictor
Y) The Earth
Z) The universe

ANSWER: Z) THE UNIVERSE
10) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

An electron microscope enables observation of detail on a virus down to 6 nanometers. Given h as 6.6 x 10^-34 joule seconds and the mass of the electron as 9.1 x 10^-31 kilograms, providing your answer in scientific notation with two significant digits, how fast, in meters per second, must an electron in the microscope be moving to observe detail of this size?

ANSWER: 1.2 x 10^5
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What element is central to synthetic chemistry because of the unique ability of its atoms to bind to one another with single, double and triple bonds and form chains, branches and rings of varying sizes?

ANSWER: CARBON
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

How many atoms of each element are in the following molecule: Al2(SO4)3

ANSWER: Al = 2; S = 3; O = 12
12) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Barbara McClintock won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Medicine for her discovery of which of the following?
W) Telomeres
X) Vancomycin
Y) Transposons
Z) Philadelphia Chromosome

ANSWER: Y) Transposons
12) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

Where does the first infolding of archenteron form in a deuterostome?

ANSWER: Anus
13) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

When iron becomes the ion Fe2 , it
W) loses two, 3d electrons
X) loses two, 4s electrons
Y) gains two, 3d electrons
Z) gains two, 4s electrons

ANSWER: X) LOSES TWO, 4S ELECTRONS (Solution: electrons are lost from orbital with highest n quantum number)
13) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following statements regarding the kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases is TRUE:
W) the average kinetic energy of gaseous molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the sample
X) the volume occupied by the atoms and/or molecules in a gas is large
Y) collisions between gas particles are both elastic and inelastic
Z) between collisions, molecules exert both attractive and repulsive forces on each other

ANSWER: W) THE AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY OF GASEOUS MOLECULES IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE OF THE SAMPLE
14) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Given that the log[base 10](3) = .477, what is the log[base 10] of 300?

ANSWER: 2.477
14) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

If bacterial cells divide into two cells every 40 minutes, the number of cells produced from a single cell in 240 minutes is expected to be what?

ANSWER: 64
15) Toss Up - General Science - Multiple Choice

A severe and chronic deficiency in what vitamin causes the disease known as pellagra:
W) vitamin C
X) vitamin D
Y) niacin
Z) thiamine

ANSWER: Y) NIACIN
15) Bonus - General Science - Multiple Choice

What tree in the North-Central to Northeast US has heart-shaped leaves and a light-colored wood which is prized by wood carvers
W) pin oak
X) cottonwood
Y) American sycamore
Z) basswood

ANSWER: Z) BASSWOOD
16) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

Order the four gas giants in size from the largest to the smallest.

ANSWER: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
16) Bonus - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Which one of these statements about Neptune's moon, Triton, is true?
W) It orbits in retrograde motion.
X) Its orbit is highly eccentric.
Y) It fractured billions of years ago and reformed.
Z) It does not have an atmosphere.

ANSWER: ) It orbits in retrograde motion.
17) Toss Up - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Chemical weathering of feldspars results in hydrous alumino-silicates otherwise known as
W) evaporites
X) clay minerals
Y) amphiboles (am-fee-bowls)
Z) micas

ANSWER: X) CLAY MINERALS
17) Bonus - Earth Science - Multiple Choice

Which of these features of sedimentary rocks is related to superposition?
W) texture
X) cementation
Y) stratification
Z) geodes

ANSWER: Y) STRATIFICATION
18) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

Which planet has the most volcanoes?

ANSWER: VENUS
18) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

When the Pioneer 10 space mission came to an end in 1997, about how far was the Pioneer 10 space probe from Earth?
W) 62 million miles
X) 620 million miles
Y) 6.2 billion miles
Z) 62 billion miles

ANSWER: Y-- 6.2 BILLION MILES
19) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What large machine, which came on line in the summer of 2000 at the Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Lab, is the world’s highest energy ion collider:
W) Advanced Photon Source
X) CERN supercollider
Y) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
Z) Phoenix

ANSWER: Y) RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER
19) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

According to the standard model of particle physics, what is the name for the three leptons that have no electric charge and little if any mass?

ANSWER: NEUTRINO (ACCEPT: ELECTRON NEUTRINO, TAU NEUTRINO, AND MUON NUTRINO)
20) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is a quadratic equation with a root of multiplicity of 2:
W) `9x^2 - 30x^2 + 25 = 0`
X) `x^2 + 2x - 15 = 0`
Y) `6x^2 - 11x - 2 = 0`
Z) `4x^2 - 1 = 0`

ANSWER: W) `9x^2 - 30x^2 + 25 = 0` (Solution: x = 5/3)
20) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Given `f(x) = x^2 + 2x + 3`, express `f(x + 1)` in standard polynomial form:

ANSWER: `x^2 + 4x + 6`
21) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Monatomic, diatomic, and polyatomic ideal gases each undergo slow adiabatic expansions from the same initial volume and the same initial pressure to the same final volume. The magnitude of the work done by the environment on the gas:
W) is greatest for the polyatomic gas
X) is greatest for the diatomic gas
Y) is greatest for the monatomic gas
Z) is the same only for the diatomic and polyatomic gases

ANSWER: W) is greatest for the polyatomic gas
21) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The mean free path of a gas molecule is:
W) the shortest dimension of the containing vessel
X) the cube root of the volume of the containing vessel
Y) average distance between adjacent molecules
Z) average distance a molecule travels between intermolecular collisions

ANSWER: Z) average distance a molecule travels between intermolecular collisions
22) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

The greatest induced EMF will occur in a straight wire moving at constant speed through a uniform magnetic field when the angle between the direction of the wire’s motion and the direction of the magnetic field is
W) 0 degrees.
X) 30 degrees.
Y) 60 degrees.
Z) 90 degrees.

ANSWER: Z-- 90 DEGREES
22) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

The Michelson interferometer was designed to study the nature of
W) water waves.
X) sound waves.
Y) sunlight.
Z) an “ether”.

ANSWER: Z-- AN “ETHER”
23) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

If a conducting slab is carefully placed between the plates of a capacitor so that the slab does not touch either plate
W) the capacitance increases
X) the capacitance decreases
Y) the capacitance does not change
Z) it’s impossible to know without knowing the dimensions of the system

ANSWER: W) THE CAPACITANCE INCREASES
23) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

A parallel-plate capacitor is charged and then removed from the source of emf. If a dielectric material is placed half-way into the gap between the plates
W) it will be pulled in
X) it will be pushed out
Y) it will be unaffected
Z) it will short the capacitor

ANSWER: W) IT WILL BE PULLED IN
24) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Boyle’s gas law concerns which of the following two variables:
W) volume and pressure
X) volume and temperature
Y) pressure and temperature
Z) pressure and moles

ANSWER: W) VOLUME AND PRESSURE
24) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What mass of sodium hydroxide, in grams, would contain 40 grams of oxygen?

ANSWER: 100 (Solution: NaOH = 40g x 1 mol O/16 x 1 mol NaOH/1 mol O x 40g NaOH/1 mol NaOH = 100g)
25) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Stems grow longer by creating new cells at their tips, in a region known as the:
W) terminal division section
X) terminal mitotic
Y) shoot apical meristem
Z) apical terminus

ANSWER: Y) SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM
25) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

When the body is in a time of stress, which of the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system is primarily directing the response?

ANSWER: SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM