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1) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

The absence of which of the following pigments would prevent a plant from responding to the duration of light and darkness?
W) chlorophyll
X) xanthophyll
Y) carotene
Z) phytochrome

ANSWER: Z) PHYTOCHROME
1) Bonus - Biology - Short Answer

In the male testes, interstitial cells normally produce what hormone?

ANSWER: TESTOSTERONE
2) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

This principle, formulated by Niels Boh, states that for atoms with very high quantum numbers, quantum and classical mechanics agree.
W) principle of concordance
X) principle of correspondence
Y) principle of complementarity
Z) principle of association

ANSWER: X) PRINCIPLE OF CORRESPONDENCE
2) Bonus - Physics - Multiple Choice

This principle, also formulated by Niels Boh, states that the wave and particle models of both radiation and matter balance and cannot exist alone.
W) principle of concordance
X) principle of duality
Y) principle of complementarity
Z) principle of association

ANSWER: Y) PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY
3) Toss Up - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT used in ray tracing a 3D scene in computer graphics:
W) objects
X) camera
Y) film
Z) light source parameters

ANSWER: Y) FILM
3) Bonus - Computer Science - Multiple Choice

Software that is free and can be used with no restrictions is called:
W) freeware
X) shareware
Y) open source
Z) public-domain

ANSWER: Z) PUBLIC-DOMAIN
4) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following countries must China import the largest amount of its petroleum from (As of April 2010 )
W)  Russia 
X)  Saudi Arabia 
Y)  Iran 
Z)  Angola

ANSWER: Z
4) Bonus - Energy - Multiple Choice

Yellowcake refers to which of the following substances?
W) U2O5
X) U3O8
Y) Np2O5
Z) Pu3O7

ANSWER: X) U3O8
5) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

`sin(2A)` is equal to which of the following:
W) `sin(A) - cos(A)`
X) `3sin(A) -: cos(A)`
Y) `2sin(A) xx cos(A)`
Z) `tan(A) - 1`

ANSWER: Y) `2sin(A) xx cos(A)`
5) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

The pendulum of a clock swings through an angle of 1 radian, and the tip sweeps out an arc of 12 inches. How long is the pendulum?

ANSWER: 12 INCHES
6) Toss Up - Astronomy - Short Answer

What is the Greek name meaning sparkling or scorching for the star, alpha Canis Majoris?

ANSWER: SIRIUS
6) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

One important difference between spiral and elliptical galaxies is that:
W) spiral galaxies contain Population II stars
X) spiral galaxies contain clouds of gas and are still forming stars
Y) spiral galaxies contain a massive black hole
Z) spiral galaxies are formed by a more rapid accumulation of mass

ANSWER: X) SPIRAL GALAXIES CONTAIN CLOUDS OF GAS AND ARE STILL FORMING STARS
7) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

What is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity, where is appears to exhibit the ability to self propel?

ANSWER: A SUPERFLUID
7) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Who built the first Penning trap, which can store charged particles?

ANSWER: HANS GEORG DEHMEL
8) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is LEAST accurate:
W) the Sun’s corona is hotter than both the photosphere and the chromosphere
X) the Crab nebula is a remnant of a supernova that collapsed in the year 1054
Y) equinoxes are points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator is intersected by the ecliptic
Z) epicycles were employed by Ptolemy to explain retrograde motion in planets

ANSWER: X) THE CRAB NEBULA IS A REMNANT OF A SUPERNOVA THAT COLLAPSED IN THE YEAR 1054
8) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is LEAST likely true about gamma ray bursts:
W) they are extremely powerful emissions of energy
X) they are probably often associated with black holes
Y) they probably result from a neutron star merging with a black hole
Z) they typically last less than a hundredth of a second

ANSWER: Z) THEY TYPICALLY LAST LESS THAN A HUNDREDTH OF A SECOND
9) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

What is the domain and range for the function defined by the following set of three ordered pairs: {(-2, 6), (0, 9), (3, 7)}

ANSWER: DOMAIN = -2, 0, 3; RANGE = 6, 9, 7
9) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Giving your answer in centimeters to the nearest whole number, what is the perimeter of a closed quarter-circle whose radius is 12 centimeters?

ANSWER: 43
10) Toss Up - Math - Short Answer

Solve the following inequality: `3 - 6x > 15`

ANSWER: `x < -2`
10) Bonus - Math - Short Answer

Simplify the following expression, where a is not equal to zero if b = 0 or if b = -1: (a^b^2)(a^b)

ANSWER: A^(B^2+B)
11) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What formal charge would you find on a carbon atom with three bonds and no lone pairs?

ANSWER: +1
11) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

One property that decreases as the intermolecular forces increase is
W) boiling point
X) equilibrium vapor pressure
Y) viscosity
Z) heat of vaporization

ANSWER: X) EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE
12) Toss Up - Physics - Multiple Choice

What is the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor with a capacitance of 5 microfarads and a voltage drop of 12 Volts across the plates?
W) 360 microjoules
X) 375 microjoules
Y) 720 microjoules
Z) 750 microjoules

ANSWER: W) 360 MICROJOULES
12) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

What is the unit for electrical elastance, the inverse of capacitance?

ANSWER: THE DARAF
13) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

A molecule that relays the message inside the cell when a hormone attaches to the cell's surface is called a
W) chaperon
X) neurotransmitter
Y) interleukin
Z) second messenger

ANSWER: Z) SECOND MESSENGER
13) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

An enzyme inhibitor whose method of action has to do with its size and shape is known as a
W) allosteric inhibitor
X) steric inhibitor
Y) competitive inhibitor
Z) non-competitive inhibitor

ANSWER: X) STERIC INHIBITOR
14) Toss Up - Chemistry - Short Answer

What the limiting reactant in the following chemical reaction: Mg(OH)​2​​ + 2HCl → MgCl​2 ​​+ 2H​2​​O If you have 12 g of Mg(OH)​2 and 42 g of HCl?

ANSWER: Mg(OH)​2
14) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What scientist was discovered the law of conservation of mass?

ANSWER: Antoine Lavoisier
15) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Alkanes with the same structural formula can have a variety of arrangements because of the
W) sharing of electrons between the carbon atoms.
X) breaking and reforming of carbon-carbon bonds.
Y) possible rotation about the carbon-carbon bonds.
Z) changing strength of the carbon-hydrogen bonds.

ANSWER: Y-- POSSIBLE ROTATION ABOUT THE CARBON-CARBON BONDS
15) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the allotropic forms of carbon is frequently used as a lubricant?
W) graphite
X) diamond
Y) fullerenes
Z) alkanes

ANSWER: W-- GRAPHITE
16) Toss Up - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Which of the following first hypothesized that the Earth orbited the sun?
W) Alexander the Great
X) Copernicus
Y) Socrates
Z) Tycho Brahe

ANSWER: X) Copernicus
16) Bonus - Astronomy - Multiple Choice

Why are southern hemisphere winters slightly warmer than northern hemisphere winters?
W) The Earth is closer to the Sun during that period
X) El Nino occurs in the southern hemisphere
Y) The southern hemisphere has a greater ratio of ocean to land
Z) The southern hemisphere has a greater ratio of land to ocean

ANSWER: Y) The southern hemisphere has a greater ratio of ocean to land
17) Toss Up - Physics - Short Answer

In 1885, Johann Balmer derived the formula for the 4 spectral line of what element?

ANSWER: HYDROGEN
17) Bonus - Physics - Short Answer

Which lower case letter is most typically used to denote Planck’s constant?

ANSWER: h
18) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true regarding general trends for the representative elements in the Periodic Table:
W) simple positive ions are always smaller than the neutral atoms from which they are formed
X) elements with low ionization energies lose electrons easily
Y) the size of anions increases from left to right
Z) electronegativities increase from left to right

ANSWER: Y) THE SIZE OF ANIONS INCREASES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT
18) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

How many carbons and hydrogens are in the following compound: (read slowly) 2,4-dimethyl hexane

ANSWER: CARBON = 8; HYDROGEN = 18
19) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The reaction of amines with carboxylic acids forms
W) alcohols.
X) esters.
Y) amides.
Z) proteins.

ANSWER: Y-- AMIDES
19) Bonus - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

The boiling temperatures of the aldehydes and ketones are lower than the boiling temperatures of the alcohols because
W) aldehydes and ketones have such low vapor pressures.
X) there is no intermolecular attraction in aldehydes and ketones.
Y) the size of the aldehyde and ketone molecules is large.
Z) no hydrogen bonding occurs in aldehydes and ketones.

ANSWER: Z-- NO HYDROGEN BONDING OCCURS IN ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
20) Toss Up - Chemistry - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT true about cholesterol:
W) there is no cholesterol in plants
X) cholesterol is found in meats, milk and eggs
Y) cholesterol is not synthesized in the human body
Z) cholesterol is a component of cellular membranes

ANSWER: Y) CHOLESTEROL IS NOT SYNTHESIZED IN THE HUMAN BODY (Solution: it is synthesized in the liver)
20) Bonus - Chemistry - Short Answer

What radioactive isotope of this alkaline earth element formed as a fission product of uranium and is of particular importance because it is assimilated in the body much like calcium:

ANSWER: STRONTIUM (ACCEPT: Sr)
21) Toss Up - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following is the target tissue of the hormone leptin where it binds with LepRB (read as: L, E, P, R, B) receptors:
W) hypothalamus
X) pancreas
Y) adipose tissue
Z) kidney

ANSWER: W) HYPOTHALAMUS
21) Bonus - Biology - Multiple Choice

Which of the following types of fatty acids would alpha linolenic or all ci5-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic (read as: octa-deca-tri-en-oh-ick) acid most commonly be classified:
W) an alpha 9 fatty acid
X) an alpha 9,12,15 fatty acid
Y) an omega 3 fatty acid
Z) an omega 6 fatty acid

ANSWER: Y) AN OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID
22) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is a pulsating variable star whose brightness varies in a very regular time period of about 1-50 days?

ANSWER: Cepheid
22) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What is the part of the Sun that we can see without any instruments?

ANSWER: Photosphere
23) Toss Up - Earth And Space - Multiple Choice

Hurricanes are rated on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Tornadoes are rated on the Enhanced Fujita Scale. How are these ratings determined?
W) Saffir-Simpson is based on central pressure and Enhanced Fujita is based on damage
X) Saffir-Simpson is based on wind speed and Enhanced Fujita is based on damage
Y) Both are based on damage
Z) Both are based on vorticity

ANSWER: X) SAFFIR-SIMPSON IS BASED ON WIND SPEED AND ENHANCED FUJITA IS BASED ON DAMAGE
23) Bonus - Earth And Space - Short Answer

What are the two most abundant components of Venus's atmosphere?

ANSWER: CARBON DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR NITROGEN (ACCEPT: NITROGEN GAS, NITROGEN)
24) Toss Up - Math - Multiple Choice

If the determinant of a matrix is zero, the matrix is said to be
W) an eigen-matrix.
X) singular.
Y) invertible.
Z) Gaussian.

ANSWER: X-- SINGULAR
24) Bonus - Math - Multiple Choice

Matrix multiplication differs from scalar multiplication in that matrix multiplication is not
W) commutative.
X) associative.
Y) distributed over addition.
Z) well-defined.

ANSWER: W—COMMUTATIVE
25) Toss Up - Energy - Multiple Choice

Plasmas are considered strongly coupled when the ratio of the average distance between the particles to the distance of closest approach is which of the following?
W) Small
X) Large
Y) Roughly equal to one
Z) Roughly equal to zero

ANSWER: W) SMALL
25) Bonus - Energy - Short Answer

Assuming an equal concentration of each substance, by name or number, order the following four choices in terms of radiative forcing, from greatest to least: 1) carbon dioxide, 2) methane, 3) fluorocarbons, 4) nitrous oxide.

ANSWER: FLUOROCARBONS, NITROUS OXIDE, METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE (ACCEPT: 3, 4, 2, 1)